Robert King Carter's Correspondence and Diary

   A Collection Transcribed
        and Digitized
   by Edmund Berkeley, Jr.

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Electronic Text Center , University of Virginia Library


Robert Carter Diary, 1723

     Robert Carter records the work being done on and his visits to his plantations, the prevailing winds and a hurricane, visitors he received including members of his family, trips to Williamsburg and the sums he spent while there, arrival of ships with goods from Britain, movement of tobacco from outlying farms on his sloops and its placement on ships bound for Britain, and extensive details of his bouts with gout.

Robert Carter Diary, 1723

[Kept at "Corotoman" on the Rappahannock River, Lancaster County, Virginia]


-folio 7 recto -

January 1 [1723] Odar went for Nomini
10 Colonel Page & his wife came here stayed
until the 16th
15 My daughter Burwell came here brought the
horse Dragon with her wth Colonel Page
came mr Wormley Jo Ring Whiteside
lay here two Nights
19 Odar came home brought 40 hogsheads Tobacco
8 hogsheads Corn 5 Cask cider 2 beeves 3 weathers
1 barrel beans 30 hogs [ . . . ] wool
Old Iron a Cask of Apples
18 Amy Cosby had 6 pounds white Sugar
19 Sydnor let me know his time was out
22 a loaf sugar cut some of it gone before
my Salt Peter found put to drying by the fire
took fire set the plank a fire it was with some
difficulty put out
My Daughter Burwell brews me some Ale
mr Booth was here had a horse here to Fleets bay
Mitchel came here Friday 18 stayed here
until Monday morning 21 st went away [ . . . ] Phil Smiths
23 Mitchel came again 24th went away received my Letters
f [rom Da] wkins per Willis

-folio 7 verso -

1722 [1723]

January 25 went to mr Burwell Wormeley with my daughter Burwell
came home that Night
mr Stagg was here Colonel Balls Family Mitchel at mr Wormeley
-- --
I agreed with shaw & signed Articles Sydnor went away
-- --
Stagg went away sonday morning
28 I heard Guns yesterday expect my Son is come in.
my flat [boat] has gone for Wolf house & Corotoman tobacco
no work last week by Harry Quarry
29th. at Night my Son John came home in Company
with Colonel Page
the Coachman told me I had ten hogsheads & a half of
30th mr Wormley came here & Armistead Churchi [ll]
Doctor Mann came here this day
31 st a fine morning & a fine warm Spell we hav [e]
Feb had for several Days together
John Shaw had a new whipsaw & file
2 Richard Meeks was here Edward Young brought me a
horse the same day
4 mr Bell came here Coll Ball & his son here
Colonel Armistead mr Wye Captain Keiling Whiteside
5 My Son went with me to Mid [dlese] x Court I lent
him 20£ in Currt money told him I should
Charge it to his Account
I received of mr Grimes 20£ in payment of the 20£
I let Lister [have] upon Colonel Spotswoods Account
I came home in the Night Thomas Edwards wth me.
mr Turberville came home with me a sunday
Went away Wednesday morning Stayed Tuesday
at my request.
my Son John goes to the Southward his return in
6 a fine dayW [ind] southwest a fresh Gale Arthur Lees
Ship arrived Captain Ewing in the Virg [ini] a Mer [chan] t
arrived from Topsham brought me Letters from
both the Burridges Accot ofSale & Accot
Currt from Robt Burridge .
7th another Ship came in Sight W [ind] west southwest
blew fresh all day.
this Ship provd to be the Carter she got up this
day to her Moorings Captain [Benjamin] Graves came to my
house about 4 Clock lay here all Night
I bottled of a Cask of Potomac cider No A [?]
30 dozen of Bottles 6 dozen new Cork out of
my little Bag came from Tucker.

-folio 8 recto and folio 8 verso -

[Folio 8 in the diary is a scrap tipped into the original pages bearing modern handwriting on which someone has set out the dates and the days of the week for 1722-1724.]

-folio 9 recto -

February 18 1722 [1723]

Captain Graves Captain Keiling Eskridge here
I bot of Keiling rum Sugar
14 I received of mr Shapleigh Cash made sterling
at 19 pence weight to the Crown in part discharge
of his Protest. -- -- £17"0"3
18 my rum came ashore I bot of Keiling
10 hogsheads 2 tierces 1 hogshead 2 tierces before
took eight gallons to fill them up
tw [o] Cask sugar weight [ . . . ]
mr Stagg came here Geo [rge Carter] went to Colonel
Nan Vittey delivered of a dead Child
I took out a Loaf sugar 7 remains
I tapped a Cask brandy drew off 7 quarts the Cask
wanted above 6 Inches being full
20 I took physic 22 I took Anderson
Doctor Lomax Escridge Graves went away
23 I had 23 Lambs, had a fine Nights
Rest this Night Read Doctor Tilletsons
Sermon on this Text Let him that nam
eth the name of Christ depart from iniquity
a rainy morning W [ind] Shifted to northwest Cold
blows hard
It snowed in the afternoon & all night Sunday
the 24 rainy all day & Night I went not to Church
Colonel Ball came from mr Turberville's lay here on
Sunday Night I have lost 3 young lambs in
Yeaning this hard Spell W [ind] at northwest & North
all this hard Spell my Cellar had a great
deal of water in it I pumped it out one ew [e]
died I have now 26 Lambs the Carters -- --
Longboat forced in here by bad weather
25 W [ind] continues northwest cold & clear
Charles Coachman goes to Mill for indian Meal
26. 29 Lambs,W [ind] continues northwest an easy gale a
fine day not cold We picked over our Apples
Amy Cozby had some powder blew
Shrove Tuesday gave G [eorge] C [arter] a Cock to throw at
-- --
Mar 1 a warm day So [utherl] y [wind] cloudy & rainy 2d ditto of
fair warm day 3d a warm day wind
southeast 4th rainy warm wind south a Chinch
appeared Kit came here 33 Lambs
mr Bell Doctor Mann her [e] Tapscott came
-folio 9 verso -

March 1722/3

5 H [arry] Tapscott is to begin my frame tomorrow One Harvy had my
business last night
A rainy morning warmW [ind] southeast
about Noon W [ind] at southwest I was 6 hours getting to
Bess Woods walked from [there?] to mr Wormeley's
lay there wind so hard afraid to Vent [u] r [e]
6th W [ind] at southwest so hard stayed at rosegill
all day all day [sic ] wrote to Mitchel Ad [am]
Graves promised to Send round my
Goods called aboard the Carter stayed there
1 1/2 hour drunk some Mountain came
home hauled up my Pinnace Harry
Tapscott here
7 I sent I sent [sic] Kitt away mr Meeks
books went with him W [ind] southeast warm
Odar came here went away would
not stay unless I would give him more
wch would not agree to Mechan brought a
Lettr from my Son dated 4th
8 blew very hard I went to Mill found every
thing out of order Morris & William Waugh
met me set the Mill agoing before sun
down ground all Night
9 my Son & Daughter Burwell came her [e]
10 we went to Church mr Steptoe Doctor
Mann D Lee mr Turberville mr W Jones
Thomas Edwards came home with me went away on
10 I prepared Letters for the falls Coppedge
came here. I sent my Stafford business away
with him my two servants Collen and Par
ker came down for their freedom dues
[Note that the entries for March 11th and 12th appear on the next page of the diary. EB]
13 I discharged them Thomas Edwards & Phillip Smith
here 14 I agreed [with] Collen to Serv until middle of
November mr Grymes Captain Willis came here Smith
Edwards went away mrs Amy [Cosby] had Sugar
15 sent my boat twice aboard the Welcome
Robert Donald wrote to me about his servants
-folio10 recto -

March 1722/3

11 Charles fetched 6 bushels English meal
12 my Sloop went away with 30 hogsheads tobacco aboard
Belladine I wrote into the freshes to Staffor [d]
to Potomac this week Charles brought Indian
Meal 12 for my Sloop.
18 Charles Jones came from Nomini brought Letters from
Escridge Meeks Turberville I sent away lorights
I received letters from Stark Pemberton
Wind at SW blows hard very warm
21 My daughter Burwell & my Son went away
22 my Daughter used about the Sassafras Water
a loaf of sugar 4 pounds Powder sugar 6 pounds brown ditto
6 loaves of old sugar left 16 whole loaves of new
Sugar & a piece 2 Ing [ot] s best 1 large d [itt] o of the 2d a Carboy of the 3d.
Darracott sailed this morning
23 my daughter Harrison went away my
barge set them up to mr Wormeleys Gard
iner & Sam Taylor got drunk at Urbanna
came not home until late in the evening
Captain Graves came here on Sunday mr
Turberville also dined with me went
25 both away on monday John Barbar
claimed his freedom my ten hogsheads Ada [m]
Graves sloop took in brought my Goods from Mid [d] l [ese] x
26 Charles goes to Mill W [ind] at northeast Graves
sloop Sails
28 I bottled a Cask Nomini cider 23 dozen in
my own bottles 6 dozen for Captain Graves
Phil Smith lay here
I went to brick house Colemans Purs [el] ls
was taken sick coming home wit [h]
such a faintness was forced in to mr
where after a sleep I recrui
ted & came home
29 I bottled another Cask cider 28 dozen
I went to Town to the meeting of the Governors
of the college the 1st of April it was Tues
day 3 Clock afternoon before we had do [ne]
got home Friday the 4th April brought Graves
Carpenters ashore wth me to make a
Mast for my sloop mr Turberville
went away imediately I gave awa [y]
a Crown for Coach hire 1/2 Crown to
make Colonel Page boats gang drink
-folio10 verso -

Apl 8 1723

Captain Wilson arrived the 6th from Antigua
Yesterday Martha had a Sugar Loaf Harry
Taylor a pair falls so had John Harvey
this day sent to mr Holloway for a Writ Thomas Edwards
Meclean I bot of mr Thomson 6th of April 1723
April 10 Charles Coachman goes to Mill for Indian [corn]
a great deal rain yesterday W [ind] at northeast
then north & northwest Cloudy this morning W [ind] at
northwest Joseph Gregory out of sight last night
13 Captain Wills had my Sloop the George in
to his Employ she was rigged Yesterday
this morning Sailed her new rope Biscoes book.
Captain Wilson here I agreed wth the barber this
15 I met Carter at Corotoman sent Letters
by him Ordered the Wolf house people
to keep no Holiday
18 gave out 3 gro [ss] Corks the first out of my
new Corks bottled 29 dozen of cider
my Sloop goes for Potomac for a Load
of Tobo for the Carter the Ships carpenters
have been here part of yesterday & to
day mending my Sloop & flat un
til 12 Clock.
20th Charles Jones has now at the hills 40 Sheep
18 Lambs 67 head of Cattle 10 Calves
at the wolf house there is 15 Sheep 11 Lambs
there is 54 of Cattle 10 Calves
Buckles 38 Sheep 17 Lambs 50 head of Cattle
1 Calf. I gave [John] Buckles some thread for his people
Changlins has 55 head of Cattle 3 Calves
55 Sheep 25 Lambs.
20 I go from home I got to Town on monday
I paid 20 shillings for Carter & Elizabeth Burwells Entrance
with Stagg
I paid to d [itt] o 10 shillings for George I paid to ditto for
his Plays & Ball six pounds out of his Obligation
I paid to Francis Thornton 3 pounds of mr Burwells Est [ate]
I paid Sheriffs of York & Ja [mes] City mr Burwells dues
I come out of Town Saturday 4 May got home
the 6 at Night my Sloop came this day from
Nomini brought the Carter 50 hogsheads freight 15 hogsheads
my own Tobo
-folio 11 recto -

May 8th 1723

Captain Adam Graves Sloop came for ten hogsheads
10 Gregory carried aboard the Carter 50 hogsheads my
tobacco 35 of Nomini Crops 15 my home
Crops was discharged & came home the 11
11 Charles Jones brot me Accot: that Thomas Edwards
had Ordered away G Curtis Crop wch I ne
ver heard of before Jones brought from Curtis Thomas
Edwards note from Curtis to him to bear him harm
less dated 5th May Keiling boat took the Tobo
in the 8th May
My sloop went for the falls 2 servants with him.
mr Richard Lee here had Widow Nelms Protest, Dawk
Accot against Connelly.
Thomas brings me 8 hogsheads tobacco out of Corotoman
-- --
15 Charles Coachman [an] bring [s] 36 bushels Salt into
the Pantry
13 Keiling was here gave me bills Lading
Graves here he has now 600 hogsheads aboard
I dispatched away Edwards Young
14 I sent my Letters for Keiling to mr
Captain Watkinson in the Vine arrived [sic] 10th of
May brought my goods from mr Pemberton
Captain Graves taken with an Ague in Church 12 May
had again on monday took Bark had it on
Tuesday took bark went on board pretty
hard wind a Season this 2 or 3 days
14 Martha had 2 pounds Powder Sugar for Coffee
James Keys came here this morning at
break day made six Weeding hoes
15th worked again upon hoes made [omission in text] this day
Robert Gordons [sic ] pays me in the hands of
mr Dawkins 7"0"9 in part discharge
of his debt
-- --
6 mr Innis Captain Wills Mate was here
had notes on my Collectors for Tobo
-- --
delivered to Captain Carter Colonel Tarpley protest endorsers
John Heal William Stamps William Ball for £37 0 pence
to be resumed for me of by all the endorsers
18 Captain Bowman arrivd & 3 more North B [ritai] ns
19 & 18 rainy all day
20 I go from home my Cooper G[oes . . . ] to mr
give him a hat Drawe [rs. To] his Mate
drawers Manuel now at mr D [ . . . finish] ing Cart [s]
this day Prince came hom [e . . . ] ter [ . . . ]
Arm Charles Jones [ . . . ]
-folio11 verso -


May 20 4 pounds weight Sugar 12 pounds brown ditto to mrs Amy
Besides my pocket Expences I paid away at Town
16 paid to Captain Jones for a pipe of wine
a moidore to W Robertson tow [ards] his Fees
a doubloon to Colonel Ball towards my horse
2 guineas to mr Boin for my Commission
a guinea left with mr Hickman for the governor's
I received of mr Thornton his Int [erest] money 13:16 Cash
I received of mr Nelson 48 shillings sterling for 3 years rent of
8 hundred Acres of Land in Stafford belonging
to mr W Buckner's Heirs
bought of mr Chiswell a Cask Coco paid by Dr Blair 5.10
my Sloop came from the falls 8th June brought 50 flitch
bacon 24 jowls 49 Gamons 20 gourds fat 76
hogsheads Tobo
20 June the Assembly rise prorogued to 9th November
21 1 Clock at Night I got home begin Sheathing
my Sloop 24th finished her monday 1st July
27 my other sloop discharged from the Booth
28 I agreed wth George Thomas a Seaman I am
to give him 30 shillings per month 1/2 goods 1/2 money
I gave out 2 l [b] Coffee 4 l [b] w [hi] t [e] Sugar 12 l [b] bro [ken] ditto
July [1] I finish sheathing my sloop this day
I finish Cleaning my other sloop
[John] Buckles came to me about Josh Harrison I ordered
him before a Majestrate to be whipped
2d I began my writing for England
4 my Sloop went away betime for Po
tomac in the afternoon It blew hard
at southeast a great deal of rain W [ind] came
to northeast rained all Night 5) very rainy & windy I finished business
this Night
6 I sent 18 hogshead aboard the Vine in my
Sloop Bashfords Power of Attorney
to mr [Micajah] Perry executed Captain Smith had
my Letters for Town to Colonel Jennings
my son mr Holloway Took my
leave of Ben Graves about 6 in the
Evening I gave him 4 shoats one for
Low, 4 Barrel Corn 6 Gees 2 Turkey
6 gammons 29 quarts Cordial Water 1 dozen
Made [ira] 1 pound Jesuits Bark 2 Guineas
Cap [tain Car] ter had 30 gallons rum 50 pounds
-folio12 recto -


July 7th the Carter weighed afternoon turnde down
below my house fired no guns
8 this morning the Carter turning down before
I got up Monday.
Yesterday Gardiner & McClean took my
Periaugo went aboard while I was gone
to Church after I came home while I was at
Dinner without my knowledg or leave
took my Periaugo again followed the
Vine down the river as low as Cherry
could not overtake returned home
after they had been ashoar at Gibsons.
-- --
I load aboard my Sloop 22 old oronocco hds
for Captain Bowman & ten hogsheads for Sarah
-- --
The Carter about 5 Clock this afternoon
out of sight.
10 our Court met mr Chambers he showed
me a Letter from Alex Murrah of
the 9 of May tell him all stemmed
Tobo was prohibited the Bill had
a 2d reading was ordered to be En
= grossed the Outport Mercha [n] ts & the
Scotch joined together & done this.
a letter from Murrah 6 May says no
thing of it that it was to take place June 1724
I received Rent Rolls from mr Downman [a] n
Captain Eskridge had no Bills for me turns
me over to Meeks tells me the Bills [of exchange] of
his that Meeks Sent me was for some
Corn that Colonel Lee had.
I had a judgment against Conway & Daven
for 15"-"-
Captain Ball told me that my sloop was at
the mouth of Coan my other sloop had
bin wth Downman he was gone with
them to Pay my Tobo
11 Joseph Carter brought his Accots & Rent Rolls
paid me Chins 10£ fine in Gold 20 shillings he stopped his sala [ry]
paid me the Cash he received for quit Rents at Sterling w [eigh] t
-- --
12 mr Smith here brought me a Letter from my son written
from mr Holloway for T Edwds
4 of my home Overseers sworn to their Crops.
my Molasses brought me from Doc [ . . . . ]
the Barbar came here this day [ . . . . ]
gardener disobeyd my orders ab [out . . . .]
tore out of hand fetched blood [ . . . . ]
-folio12 verso -

July 16 1723

Captain Carter came here we settled an
17 Accot he is in my debt £20
18 [Captain] Bowm [an] & Doctor Lomax came here I
Settled an Accot with him
19 & 20 I settled an Accot wth Richard Meeks
21 Sunday Captain Fowler in the Content arri
ved from Jamaica
-- --
mr Bell in his discourse about Envy had
several plain innuendos at Thomas Edwards & my
differences. Alex [ande] r jealous of the honor done to his
Captain s Join house to house grasping at all be
fore him Contention best stopped in the begin [in] g
best way to come up with the industrious
man the Night Walker the early river the
violent Pursuer in his business to shake
off Laziness effeminate pleasures drunk
enness & to Pursue the Vigorous man wth
Emulation wch was a different Nature to
Envy, the Favors of a governor &c
-- --
23 Martha a loaf of Sugar 1 l [b] powderd d [itt] o
my Daughter Harrison came here
I went to Midd [lese] x with mr Harrison came
home the same Night was at mr Grimes
he promised me Credit for Colonel Ludwell's Quit Rents
26 Sealed up my Le [tte] res for the Sarah
27 mr Edwards came here I had his bills [of exchange] for 9£
mrs Lomax went away Poor Mang [ori] t [e]
Overseer here Thomas Marshal here.
30 given to my Daughter Harrison a suit of old
Damask linen a keg S [wee] t Meats a piece fine
holland No 1860, 14 ells at 6 shillings per ell
-- --
mr Bell mrs Bell here Betty Lee set mr Por
ters horses over the river in my flat [boat]
my Sloop Ann came down the river 24th brought
28 hogsheads tobacco 5 from Major Smiths 3 from Colonel [John]
20 from mr [William] Downman
25 bad weather came up W [ind] at northeast rained
4 days Successively very hard Sunday in
the Night & morning on monday about 8 Clock
W flew about to west blew very hard all day tobacco
[mi] ghtily broke & bruised Trees broken down
[Cor] n laid & a great deal broke.
-folio13 recto -

August 2 1723

Captain Fowler left his Negro with me if I
keep him am to give 7500 £ for him
I am to give him for his best Jamaica rum
3/8 [shillings] Cash, his best muscovado Sugar 35 shillings per hundred
for 52 pounds Liverpool Goods at 1st Cost 10,000 pounds
Tobo in 13 hogsheads
The Gardiner had Shirts the Negro Wenches
petticoats Aprons Phil a Shirt
Ship Sarah went by the House Captain . Rich [ard] son
this day the Gardiner treated me very saucily
told me [he] valued not beating with many other im
pudent answers wch were too many to re
5 Captain Richardson went out of the river he carried
my second Bills of Exch [ange] & many Letters
I gave my daughter Harrison 2 guineas
I gave Captain . Rich [ard] son a Shoat barrel Corn
4 Gammons a dozen Chickens
Thomas Carter last week had a note for 50 bushels Corn
Major Fleet had [ . . . ] pounds Sugar at 7 1/2 per pound
Sent an Invoice to Captain Carter on Friday
when George was sent for
My sloop went for Wiccocomoco 31th July lay 3 days for want of
Colonel Page sent my Letters per his man last of July
my Daughter Harrison left me 30th July
-- --
with my Letters I had the packet relating to the
Case of the Weeks & a Commission out of
the Chancery
Captain Ric [hards] on brought my packet of Prints
5 mr James Reed & Captain Whiteside came
here stayed all night went away be
fore I was up Doctor Mann went away
Captain Carter came here.
-- --
6 Mart [h] a had 2 pounds Coffee 1 pound powdered Sugar
7 I sent to Mill Ordered Charles to have his
meal measured
-- --
mr John Bagge here I took a Mortgage from him
of his home Plantation & twenty Slaves as
Security for 200£ of mr Burwells money
wch I gave him Bills for
I prepare for making cider
Captain Fowler sent me 11 pieces linen
27 pieces Fustians
8 George Thomas in my sloop brought from Wiccocomoco 19 hogsheads
1 hogshead from mr Thomas Lees
-folio13 verso -

August 1723

9th I begun making Cider
Amy Cosby had 12 pounds muscovado Sugar
15 Martha had a Loaf of sugar 19 Amy Cosby
had 3 ounces dd Sugar
20 my sloop went to the falls carried 11 hogsheads
on board Captain Ben [Graves]
I had made 23 Butts Cider 11 Coolers next day
I writ rode wth my Son to all the Quarters gave
him Wauney a Madagascar Negro from Corotoman
21 I sent Jon Shaw & two of the Sawyers to carry
up my Plank to the Mill & to bring home a hogshead tobacco
they came home the 23 carried but one Stock
of Plank
24 Went to mr Wormeleys wth my Son came
home that Night slept in the boat good part of the way the Awnning down
Wauney went wth him
he had a Suit fustian Jacket & breeches
of linen shoos Stockings & hat
Captain Eskridge was here gave me a note on
mr Burgess for part of his wine 3"10 sterling
had a loaf of dd refined Sugar I wrote to Captain .
Hooper by him
26 gave Martha [ . . . ] pound powderd Sugar Overhaled
some Lockers of my wife's Store found
some Papers of mrs Swanns & several Goods
I had forgot gave Gardiner shoes Stockings
also Da [nie] l Mclean
my Son G [eorge] had a fever Saturday night
took a Vomit Sunday it worked 9 times very
brisk & well this morning
Daniel Carter came here had away my
List of Negro Children a bushel of new wheat
mem [oran] d [um] my Sloop from Potomac came home
the 22, Thursday brought 73 hogsheads Tobo from
Stafford my West [morelan] d Tobo left behind I had
Lettrs from Hooper Carter Johnson Dr Bell Meeks
this morning I was taken a little lame in my
right Ancle Attributed it to my walk
Sunday in the Evening at noon I grew worse
by five of Clock I prepared for a fit of the
Gout at night could hardly stir went
to bed at 1/2 an hour after ten. wrote several
Lettrs for Eng [lan] d in a great deal of pain
-folio14 recto -

August 27th 1723

I had a pretty good night was feverish about 2
hours slept well the latter part of the night
waked pretty easy continued so until I rise Captain
Kennedy came here I finished my letters in
a great deal of pain about 11 he went away
was carried into the parlor drank 3 dishs
of Coffee & milk was brought back to my own
room the two scotch pills I took at going
to bed worked twice about 10 Clock cant stir
but with a world of pain took to my
Crutch the least motion of the pained
ankle puts me on a rack fallin came here
to Settle Accots I had 2 stools more at Night
about 4 in the afternoon I eat a porringer of Chicken
broth with bread in it also some of the minced
Chicken drank a glass of cider & Water was very
full of Pain all the rest of the day removd into
the Parlor at sunset stayed there until 10 o'clock
very full of Pain & very restless until going to
bed, after being in bed fell asleep for about a quarter
of an hour waked in abundance of pain
was very restless until 4 o'clock had a fever &
mighty difficulty of breathing could [not] res
t nor find ease any where or in any pos [i] t [io] n
about 5 o'clock was somewhat easy went off the
fever Slept until seven drank water in
the Night 2 or 3 times did not agree with
me several times I washed my mouth. I rise
about 8 drank a pot Sage Tee, The Pain
in my ankle continues as violent as ever
can ['t] stir my foot without being upon
a rack cant stand without a Crutch &
very badly with one. was carried in a Cha [ir]
into the Parlor at 11 a drank 3 dishes of Coff
ee & milk wch set very well very restless
with my Pain however had the Barbar to
Shave me eat a porringer of gruel wth
Curr [an] ts pleased me well had 3 loose stools
in the Evening my pain very racking if I did
but stir at night my left foot in some pain
John Lewis came here stayed all Night I paid him
26 shillings 18 shillings for prizing & receiving 3 hogsheads Tobo
8 shillings for 2 Scabbords I wa very uneasy until
10 o'clock my left foot still growing worse I
had a Tankard of drink made water
a little Cider loaf Sugar went to bed, soon was taken with
a fever heat & dryness in my hands & feet
& great restlessness tumbling
& tossing
-folio14 verso -

1723 August 28

& shifting side every minute broken disturbed Sleep
until 3 o'clock had a Candle lit drank several times of
my tankard from 3 slept pretty easily until 7
29th rise at 8 could hardly stand on my left foot
my right not in such racking pain only w [hen]
I move drank 3 dishes sage Tea Jonathan Gibson cam [e]
here after him mr Bell & one Scott a schoolmaster I drank
three dishes of Coffee & milk after Dinner my dinner
was only a porringer of gruel & currants I slept about 1/2
an hour had 3 stools this day by fits I was pretty easy
when I humored the lying of my foot my left foot grows rather
better this day we cut marked & docked our colts 8 were
horse Colts 3 were fillies mr Bell & Scott went away
before night at 10 o'clock I went to bed slept in a disturbed ma-
nner until abot 1 wakt In a shivering & cold sweat lay in a great deal
of misery until about 3 my fever declined water high cold
fell asleep after 4 continued Napping until past 7 very
easy of pain rise after eight drank 3 dishes of Sage
Tea this is the 30th of the month
30th after Tea I drank 3 dishes of Coffee & milk
was pretty easy all the forenoon my left
foot grew worse my right better I read all
the forenoon sat up in my Chair grew more
uneasy in the afternoon for my dinner
I eat hominy & pancake drank cider & Water
at Night was very uneasy read now & then
but wth a great uneasy ness had no stool
this day went to bed about 10 got a short
Nap lay until two before got to sleep then
slept until five a very bad night I had take
it together my left foot now the worst of
the two am an entire cripple have not
moved a Step these several days only as I am
carried about in a Chair between two [rooms?]
Augst 31. got a good Nap this morning
between two & 3 hours rise between 9 &
10 very lame my left foot the worst
George read me 4 Chapters in the new Testament
I drink three dishes of Coffee & milk after
came here Whiteside James Reid & Captain Ben [Graves?]
they dined here I eat a whole Squirrel drank
plentifully of cider & six Glasses of Wine
mr Stagg came here about 12 o'clock taught all
day stayed a Saturday Night I had a violent
night both for pain & uneasyness I guess by
the wine I drank my left foot Continues the
-folio15 recto -

September 1 Sunday 1723

I rise about 8 drank 3 dishes of Sage tea about 11 I drank
my Coffee & Milk Colonel Ball came here & went
to Church Stagg agreed to Come 20th of this month
& to teach this year went away about 12 I had a fine
Stool in the afternoon while they were at Church
I got a fine Sleep which refreshed me very
much read 2 Sermons of Doctor Blairs I eat
a broiled Pigeon that was highly seasoned wth
pepper eat some Bermuda Potatoes &
some Apple pie drank about a pint of cider in
all most qualified wth water at night drank
a large draft of water Colonel Ball stayed wth
me until 8 o'clock I went to bed about 11 slept
until past 1 had an out of [ . . . ] dream waked in
a great deal of pain in both feet the left most
continued very restless for above an hour
rise up strove to vomit could bring nothing
up but phlegm afterwards fell asleep & waked
about six pretty easy .
2d I rise about 7 o'clock used my feet to walk
to my Chair drank 3 dishes of Sage Tea
has been sultry hot all this last week
continues so. Captain Whiteside had 2
ounces of ipecacuanha for mr Wormeley
mr Stagg had a jug of Vinegar
2 I drank Coffee & milk read a great deal could [not] walk
about the house wthout a stick Rollins came
out of Westmoreland I eat stewed Squirrel & the broth
drank cider & cider & water several times sat
up until ten a o'clock was taken with a pain
in my left leg fro [m] the knee down to my An
kle always when I stir very troublesome
in the Night came Sawny wth Letters from
his Master my Son &c I had a very un
easy Night could not get to sleep until
fair day light slept until 7 o'clock
3d sent Sawny away the same in my
left leg Continues drank Coffee and milk
Gregory came from on board J Reids Ship deli
vered but 12 hogsheads brought one ashore I eat small
fish for dinner drank wine freely &
wine & Water, at night I took 2 of my
Scotch pills drank white wine wth mr
Turberville almost a bottle went to bed
at 11 slept until past one got up put on
my gown slept until 3 then my physic
-folio15 verso -

September 3d 1723

physic gripped me & worked plentifully
went to sleep again in my gown slept until
7 my physic worked again.
4 rise at 8 read wrote a note for Charles
to go to Mill for Indian [corn] my Pain in
my left leg continues very painful
when I stir chiefly in my knee Cool weat [he] r
wind at northwest drink Coffee & Milk prepare
Jo Gregory for the falls for a load of Stones
George Thomas wth the other Sloop comes down wth a
Load of Stones mr Steptoe &c here played at Cards
until 3 o'clock in the morning my Leg very
Stiff the Pain in my Left leg went quit [e]
5 I went to the Race Colonel Ball with me
who lay here that Night stayed wth me next day
6 I rode to Corotoman Point I believe caught Cold
7 my leg worse had an uneasy Night
8 went to Church very uneasy that day & night
Wind changed grew Cool & colder the fore part of
the Night had a fire made
9 warmer in the morning my leg easy r
swelling somewhat abated
Captain Carter here came wth me from Church
Charles fetched Corn from the Hills Kit came down
brot me a Letter from Eaton from Hooper
George [the] coopeer went for Nomini Saturday 7th
9 sent [Richard] Haynes to find a man for my sloop
Skipper trimmed his flat
10 my sloop wth [George] Thoms went for the falls
my foot mends day by [day] swelling yet
remains Jemmy from my daughter
came here went away
Martha had a pound Coffee 1 pound weight Sugar
Amy [Cosby] had 6 pounds brown Sugar 4 ounces Bark
I sent to the falls to Dr Bell Kit carried
2 pounds thread a bag I paid Colonel Ball 5 1/2 pistoles
being remainder due for horse Broad Stern
11 my leg easy some swelling yet re
mains cant wear a shoe on my right foot
went to Court in my Barge had a scuffle wth Edwds
in the Court about my Accot of the Administration
of mrs Swans Estate my Accot passed the Court
allowed me 10£ for the funeral Charges
-folio16 recto -

September 11 1723

brot home major Smith Captain Eskridge Captain White
they drank two bo [tt] les rack
12 paid Smith 20£ for Turner 14£ for freight
Escridge went for Williamsburg Smith home a
rainy morning I agreed wth the brick
maker he began to make the Yard.
I rode to the Church in the evening a shoe
on my left foot my right foot a little
painful in the Night slept well the night
before very indifferently
13 put on a heel Slipper on my right foot
left of my leg flannel the brickmaker finished the
Yards I rode there at Night slept indifferently
14 came a man in Westmoreland from the upper parts for a
warrant I rode out went to Jacksons Mill Eat some
Drum at mr Bells slept well the latter part of the
Night was very heavy
15 a rainy morning went to Church mr Bell
read prayers at Night came Captain Escridg e brought
me the governor's Express for regulation of the Militia
Lettr from my Son mr Holloway mr Robtson
did not sleep this Night until past 3 then slept
until 7 rise very muddy
16 dispatched a Letter away to the governor
another to my Son shipped 24 hogsheads Tobo on
board Captain Grayson wrote a circular Lettr
to the Com [mande] rs of the Militia in the Northern
Neck went to bed at 10 slept until 1/2 an hour
after one this day came David Waugh
with a Letter from Russell two Suggestions
from Travis & Foley I wrote to Russel to Hoo
per William Waugh brought me a Letter from Edwards
I put on both my shoes on Sunday my feet very
uneasy about 2 o'clock in the Night monday morn
W [ind] at northwest weathe [r] cool
17 I prepare for my Journey to Potomac
18 I set out at 1/4 after 8 reached Nomini
about 5 in the Evening
19 sent Letters to Colonel Robinson Mason Tayloe
Allerton Allerton refuses to Serve
went to [double arrowhead symbol for Lloyd's] quarters met Colonel Tayloe Saw
Dicksons Mill
20 went to Hickory Thicket & Oxfords
21 went to Nomini Church mr De Butts preach [ed]
22 Sunday went to Captain Eskridge's lay there
-folio 16 verso -


Sepr 23 from Captain Eskridge's went to Captain McCarty
from thence to Coles Point E [skridge] & M [cCarty] in Compa [ny]
met Colonel Lee he went wth us we dined at his
house I went home in the Night
24 went to Marshalls & the Old Ordina [ry]
lay at Major Ashtons lay there.
25 went to Wallaces Old Ordinary &
Marshals got home at Night Captain E [scridge?]
came [as far as ?] Belfield & he lay there
26 took a view of my Mill ordered the ma
king a waste , the Miller guesses 250 barrels
Corn 4 1/2 wheat Set off for my Journey
1/2 an hour after ten reached home about
Seven stayed at my Mill an hour
grew lame after I got home went
to bed at 10 slept until 4
27 rose very lame cant walk withput
a great deal of Pain took some Pills
drank 2 dishes Chocolate Captain Woodw [ar] d
came here
28 resolved on a Voyage to the falls went to my
home Quarters
30 agreed with Bryan a Brickmaker to
make me 200 thousand bricks next summer
I am to pay him 6500 pounds Tobo James Carter
came here I gave him an ounce of Bark
John Shaw I ordered to go upon mending
the Glebe Kitchen
I have now 13 bottles Lime Juice
Thomas Berry came here he Agreed to selle m [e]
some salt I'm to send it out of hand.
October 1 mr Coppedge came here last Night he brought me the
Scheme of Brent Town Land promises to finish all
my warrants on the broad run Ball run & in the
little fork this fall
I gave him a note to James Webb for 2 steers
I went to Jacksons Mill gave Waugh orders to
Strenthen the Mill Gang came home about 3
Set about packing up my things for the falls my
boat was trimmed Tallowd & launchd my Sloop
with Gregory was dispatched & sailed bound to
the falls
October 2d rise at 3 o'clock prepare for my Journey
to the falls was out just 12 days got home
on sonday Night the 13th of October Captain Eskridge
came here on monday Night after dark
-folio 17 recto -

October 15th. 1723

To mr Turberville 6 pounds Sugar 2 gallons rum 3 gallons rum
October 17 my Son Robert came home in Compa [ny] wth
Captain Willis
20 I went from home lay at my Daughter
Burwells Sunday lay at mrs Burwells dined
at Colonel Pages
21 got into the General Court about 2 o'clock Satur
day night lay at mrs Burwells dined
there Coll mrs Burwells Wilkinson shaved
me gave him a milled half Crown
went to Town on Monday called at Mer
chts hundred got into Court 2 o'clock Robin to town
went to town with me
26 lay at mrs Burwells 2d day of November at mrs Bur
wells Wilkinson Shave [d] me dined at Coll
Pages Colonel page came to me Monday
Morn 4th November came home wthin Night
Money paid away and given while I was out

paid to mrs Page for my Daughter         
Harrison her Accot at Pratts -- -- 11"13
to my D [aughte] r Burwell for mrs Smith         
for 1/2 her Wages on Accot of my         
Children -- -- 5" 4"
to mrs Sullivan . . . . . . . . . . 4"
to Bowcock -- -- 0"13"6
to mr Brays Maid -- -- 0"10"
to Peter a milled 1/2 Crown         
to mr Holloways man Ben -- -- 0:4
Some other small Gifts         
paid the Barber & his man -- milled 0"6
paid pickled Herring -- -- 0"4

98 dunghill fowles 27 geese 37 Turkeys ducks &c
202 in all
November 6. bot of Ruth Wood 11 Chickens
of mrs Kirk 6 d [itt] o for 2 pounds Wool
7 a discovery is made by McClean & Captain Carter
that Thomas Austin & Robert Bisco [e] had Combined to steal a prized
hogshead of my Tobo shipped off to go aboard Captain
Rich [ar] dson
marked RB no 7 Rich [ar] dson refusing
to take it in Its brought back & put into the Sloop
landing house also two hogsheads brought home of Bi [sc] o [e]
in my cart a hogshead of mine from Norman's Ford
is broke up to fill them up for this Roguery Bis
coe Coven [en] ts to Serve a Year so does Austin
8 mr Chichester here to the 11th in this time this
Agreemt transacted
11 I agreed with Robert Horton to be my Over
seer at the wolf house

-folio 17 verso -

November 13 1723
Our Court day Thomas Austin acknowledged
his Indenture Colonel Barber acquaints me
me he had seized [Thomas] Glascocks who had fled
for murder his Estate Colonel Tarpley in
the behalf of Glascocks Heir offers to En
ter the Land as Escheat
messrs Lee Man William Strother came home
14 I agreed with Strother to be my general
Overseer over my affairs at the falls
write to Hooper Coppedge by him
16 Biscoe had his freedom dues Harry
the Taylor a Suit clothes
Martha had 1 3/4 pound Coffee 1 pound white Sugar mrs Amy [Cosby]
6 pounds brown Sugar
17 Sunday my Son Robert came home
19 I agreed with an Overseer for Wallace's
with Poor wrote to Captain Eskride about McCar
Processioning to Meeks
Sent Jemmy over the river my boat brought
me my Letters by Keiling & a great ma
ny for other People
20 I sent away a great many L [ette] rs
by T Gumby to mr Steptoes
mr Boush sent me 32 barrels Tar
10 barrels Pitch several of the Tar [barrels had] Water
in them & some a great deal Trash
one barrel Pitch not full by a 3d
wrote to Boush about the tobacco at Lyons
& Merchants hundred
-- --
23 Joseph Gregory came from the falls brought 5 3/4 hogsheads
Wheat 4 beeves Tallow 84 [lb.?] a Venison
for me 1 ditto for mr Lee 2 beeves for the
Lees brought down Gollyfars family
Amy had 8 pounds Sugar for beef
Peter Smith had a quart rum Gregory a quart
a stripping day monday 25th
25 Captain Keiling came here Captain
& John Fitzhugh
26 went away Posford Sloop brought
me 2 pipes of wine came into York
in the Judith Cobb's boat brot my Sons
things mr Harrisons Charles carried
Bess away to his m [aste] rs 30 pounds Cocoa Nuts now

-folio 18 recto -

November 27th 1723
mr Charles Burgess &c here they are to Enter into
a Rule of Court for my determmation
of their difference my Sons Papers for
his Northern Neck Fees &c came to me
I answered his Letter closed it with a String
wrote to Colonel Page mrs Burwell Kemp
sent by Captain McCarty to Captain Eskridge
the Westm [orelan] d Papers for Newton
Jonathan Gibson here has the King George [County]
Papers as Coll [ecto] r
Isbel weighed my old Cocoa nuts 70 pounds
mr Downman sheriff of Richmond here this
week settled an Accot gave him for this
years Collections new Powers
December 5 William Waugh sent me the following Ac [coun] t
of Cattle received of Simon Sallard
1 Cow 8 years old wth Calf
3 Cows 6 year Old
2 heifers 3 years old wth Calf
2 Steers 3 years next spring
3 Bulls 3 years next spring
1 heifer ditto 2 Calves
-- --
66 & 33 pounds Yarn Blanch Flowers note
from William Waugh gave a note on Store 40 shillings
9 went from home rode in the Night from Cooks
Mill the way very wet was very cold & Stiff when
I got to my Daughter Burwells
10 was very lame got to Town by 12 Sat in Court
until within Night was very cold my feet
numb Eat heartily at mrs Sullivans sat up
until twelve had an uneasy Night
11 very lame but little pain kept my Cham
ber all day eat heartily in the evening
drank a pint wine with Colonel Jenings had a
very tedious Night sleep very broken
12 downright lame could hardly stand
my feet much swolen could not get one
of my Slippers up at heel was coached to
Colonel Jenings & back to Town from Town
went to New Quarters in mr Jolloway's Char [io] t
was carried into the boat was carried
up to mrs Burwells in a Chair very lame
& in great Pain

-folio 18 verso -

December 12 1723
had a very severe Night little Sleep
13 could not stand nor budge but as I was
carried was seized with a violent pain
in my knee held me all that day could
get no shoe on had a miserable Night
14 the Pain in my knee continued feet
very much swelled could not get on my
Stocking had a very bad Night
15 the pain in my knee left me both
feet very much swelled had a very [bad] night
slept little until towds day
16 Continued very lame could not [move] but
as I was carried had a very uneasy
Night slept little until towds morning
17 much in the same Condition both
in the day & in the Night
18 no amendment fine warm weather
resolved home next day
19 rainy much in the same Condition
rained all day the Night not much
better Colonel Page fast kept above Stairs
these 3 days we saw not one another
20 a fair day but cold Came away from
mrs Burwells about 12 o'clock reached mr Worm
just after sunset no shoe has been
on my foot since I left the Town I caught
Cold this [day] mr Wormeley lay out of his
bed for me had a very uneasy Night
21 was carried down to mr Wormeleys
Boat had a fine Passage home W [ind] at northwest
Stagg & Whiteside came with me
coming in to the Boat was the first
time I used my feet they swelled very
much at Night my sleep very broken
& interrupted Colonel Ball & his Family
went away so did Stagg & whiteside
on sunday morning being 22 I mend slow
ly my Children went to Church mr Ball
went to Church with his Sisters Colonel Ball
stayed with me for want of horse

-folio 19 recto -

Decemr 1723
22 Colonel Ball & his family went away in
the evening I had a very uneasy Night
23 continue very lame just able to hobble
with my Cane & Crutch sent Sam the tailor
away to mrs Burwells with things for Rachel
& a pound Tea mr Bell Man Woodwd came here
24 they went away my lameness somewhat
abated at Night my feet swelled as much
as ever
25 Christmas day I walk a little better
with my Cane can Endure my great slippers
my rest very much broken my feet swell
every Evening & almost in continual
26 this morning I walk better can mak [e]
a Shift to hobble alone
I sent mr Wormeley a Cask Choice Vinegar
I gave Stagg a bottle Lime Juice I sent 30 bushels
Salt up to Colonel Pages Quarters I sent 30 hogsheads
@my Crop tobacco aboard Captain Fowler
fine weather too good for the time of year
a Sourer [?] after It is to be feared
Captain Cant in the Burwell arrived into York
Thursday 19th of December had my Letters sent me
by Docto [r] Nichol [a] s man the same evening
I also received my Letters & Accot from Tucker came
in the Amelia Captain Lawrence sent me from home by my son Robert
-- --
27 My Legs swell as much at Night as ever
slept pretty well Swelling somewhat
[abated] in the morning Richard Lee Dr Man [n] here
sat up until 11
28 they stayed here Swelling in my fee [t]
much the same
29 they went to Church mr Zuil & Man [n]
came back caught Cold this day Took Pills
in the Night
physic wrought kindly had an easy
31 W [ind] at northwest all this day continue Lame
feet swell as much Henry & Peters
here dispatched away


Source copy consulted: Robert Carter Diary, 1722-1727, Robert Carter Papers, Acc. No. 3807, Albert H. Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia. Charlottesville.

The editor reviewed this text January-March 2010, added coding for expansions of many words for the modern text, and numerous footnotes to the original and modern texts prepared originally in 2001. Many of the added footnotes came from work that was done between 2001 and basic completion of the project in 2009; others were based on publications that appeared in that period, and on new research.

[1] Josh Odar was one of Carter 's overseers and is mentioned often in the diary.

[2] Mann Page (1691-1730) of "Rosewell," Gloucester County, married in late July or early August 1718 Judith Carter, Carter's fifth child by his wife Judith Armistead. Page attended Eton and Oxford, and was appointed to the Council shortly after returning to Virginia. In 1726 he began the house at "Rosewell" but he did not live to complete it. Mann Page II finished the construction; the house burned in 1916, and it is now a "romantic and noble ruin." ("Council Proceedings," Virginia Magazine. . . . ; and O'Neal, Architecture in Virginia , 101. ).

[3] Elizabeth Carter (1692-1734) married in 1709 Nathaniel Burwell (1680-1721) of "Carter's Creek," Gloucester County, and, in 1724, Dr. George Nicholas. (Carleton. A Genealogy. . . of Robert Carter. . . . p. 114. )

[4] John Wormeley (1689-1727), a younger son of Ralph Wormeley (d. 1701) for whom Carter had been a trustee in John's youth. When his older brother, Ralph, died in 1714, John inherited all of their father's considerable estate in Middlesex and York counties. He married Elizabeth Tayloe and had six children. (See "Letters Concerning The Estate Of Ralph Wormeley" in the opening page of this web site ; and Edmund Jennings Lee. Lee of Virginia 1642-1892. [Heritage Books, 2008 reprint found on Google Books, 9/10/2009], 147. )

[5] Jo Ring and Whiteside are presently unidentified.

[5.5] Carter's meaning of the term "weathers" is not clear, but the Oxford English Dictionary suggests that it can mean "the fleece obtained from the second or any subsequent shearing of a sheep."

[6] Amy Cosby seems to have been an important house servant, probably the housekeeper for Carter , then a widower, and is mentioned a number of times in the diary.

[7] This may have been Thomas Booth of York County who held a power of attorney after 1709 from Robert Bristow (1688-1737), a prominent Englishman and member of Parliament, who had a plantation at Fleet's Bay, Northumberland County. Carter had turned down the opportunity to be Bristow's Virginia agent. (Tyler, "Inscriptions on Old Tombs in Gloucester Co., Virginia." ; and Sedgwick, Romney. The History of Pariament. . . Commons. p. 488.

[8] Fleet's Bay is at the east end of Northumberland County not far from Corotoman. (Miller. Place-Names . . . . p.51 . )

[9] Omitted.

[10] There are many references to Charles Stagg in Carter's diary where he is usually referred to as "Mr." He seems to have been a major overseer.

[11] Omitted.

[12] "Corotoman," or "Buckles," was a property very close to Carter s home, also called "Corotoman." But this property was under the direction of an overseer named John Buckles, and Carter frequently refers to it as "Buckles." ("John Buckles, Overseer James Rob, Carpenter." Brown and Sorrells. People in Profile. pp. 112-118. )

[13] Armistead Churchill (1704-1763) was the son of William Churchill of "Bushy Park," Middlesex County. (Harrison, Landmarks. . . . , 346. )

[14] Dr. Mann has not been identified.

[14.5] A whipsaw, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, was a "frame-saw with a narrow blade, used esp. for curved work." Apparently it was often fairly long with handles on each end.

[14.6] A pinnace was "a small light vessel, generally two-masted, and schooner-rigged; often in attendance on a larger vessel as a tender, scout, etc." It could be rowed as well. ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[15] Richard Meeks was described by Carter in a letter of July 15, 1720, as the "general overseer" of the property that he consistently referred to by its tobacco mark of a double arrowhead or double "L"; it seems to have been the properties belonging to John Lloyd, widower of Carter's niece, Elizabeth. Lloyd went to England about 1700. Carter apparently leased the lands from him.

[16] Dr. John Bell (d. 1743) was the minister of Christ Church and St. Mary's White Chapel parishes, Lancaster County, 1712-1743. ( John K. Nelson. A Blessed Company: Parishes, Parsons, and Parishoners in Anglican Virginia, 1690-1776. [Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 2001]. p. 304; and "The Reverend John Bell Christ Church Parish Rector," in Brown and Sorrells. People in Profile. pp. 25-34.

[17] This probably was Captain William Keiling of the Betty. ( Survey Report 6800 summarizing Adm. 68/194, Virginia Colonial Records Project, Albert H. Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia. )

[18] This may have been the John Lister who was paid by the Council of Virginia on May 30, 1723, "for Erecting Batteries on the River Rappahannock." (McIlwaine, Executive Journals of the Council . . . , IV(1721-1739), 39. )

[19] Alexander Spotswood (1646-1740) had been the governor from 1710 to 1722.

[20] "Thos. Edwards, a little petty Fogging Lawyer the Clark of our County that hath as much Mettle and more cunning for Contention then his predecessor had" Carter wrote to Landon Jones, July 23, 1723. Edwards was clerk from 1720-1746. ( Within the Court House at Lancaster. Lively, VA: Lively Printing Services, Lively, VA: Lively Printing Services, [1976]. p. 15. ; and "Thomas Edwards, Gentleman, Clerk of the Court." Brown and Sorrells. People in Profile. pp. 94-103.)

[21] George Turberville (d. 1742)of "Hickory Hill" in Cople Parish, Westmoreland County, a justice and burgess. He married Lettice Fitzhugh and information can be found in "The Fitzhugh Family," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography , 7(1899-1900): 196-199, 317-319, and 425-427 , and in Norris. Westmoreland County, Virginia.

[21.5] This Arthur Lee may be the youngest son of Francis Lee (1648-1724), third son of Richard Lee the emigrant; Francis had returned to England to become a merchant in London. ( Lee, Edmund Jennings. Lee of Virginia, 1642-1892: biographical and genealogical sketches of the descendants of Colonel Richard Lee. ( Baltimore, MD: Reprinted for Clearfield by Genealogical Pub. Co., 1999, 1974). p. 71.)

[21.6] "Topsham is a suburb of Exeter in the county of Devon, England, on the east side of the River Exe estuary between Exeter and Exmouth. . . . Topsham's position, offering a sheltered harbour to seagoing trade has enabled it to thrive as a port, a centre for fishing and shipbuilding," (Wikipedia, 1/12/2010)

[21.7] Carter refers to the British merchants John and Robert Burridge.

[22] A vessel named the Carter traded to Virginia for many years; she is most often referred to as the Carter Frigatt . The captain in 1706 was Thomas Graves who is mentioned in the Lancaster County Court Orders Book for judgements against him obtained by Carter . Later, the Carter would be commanded by Baily Kent, 1718-1721, Thomas Dove, and by Benjamin Graves. She was owned by Carter and William Dawkins in 1720.

[23]Benjamin Graves and his brother, Adam (d. 1726), were the sons of Captain Thomas Graves, long a captain of vessels trading to Virginia, and a special friend of Carter ; they also commanded vessels in the trade.

[23.5] According to the Oxford English Dictionary, a "tierce" is a third part of something.

[24] William Ball (1686-1745) of "Millenbeck," Lancaster County, not far from "Corotoman," was a close friend of Carter's, a justice, burgess, and wealthy and powerful man. ( Mann. "William Ball. . . ." )

[25] Nan Vittey was a servant of Carter's. Her name was found in the Lancaster County Court Order Book 7, l721-1729, p.92, Archives Research Services, Library of Virginia as abstracted in Jones, Orders Book Entries . . . Referring to "Robert Carter. . . ." p. 112.

[25.4] After this still birth, Carter went into Lancaster County court and complained of his "loss and trouble" due to her actions, and she was ordered to serve Carter one year after the expiration of her indenture, or "one thousand pounds of Tobacco as the Law directs." ( Lancaster County Court Order Book 7, l721-1729, p.92, Archives Research Services, Library of Virginia as abstracted in Jones, Orders Book Entries . . . Referring to "Robert Carter. . . ." p. 112. )

[25.5] The Oxford English Dictionary. states that the term "physick," when used to refer to a medicine, means "cathartic or purge."

[26] "Anderson's Scots Pills, a product of the 1630's" had been invented by Patrick Anderson, a Scot, who wrote in a book published in 1635 that he had learned the secret of the pills in Venice. He passed the formula to his daughter Katherine who in turn passed it to a doctor named Thomas Weir in 1686. Weir obtained letters patent on the formula from James II in 1687. ( George B. Griffenhagen and James Harvey Young, "Old English Patent Medicines in America," in Contributions From the Museum of History and Technology. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1959. Paper 10, 156-183. )

[27] Carter owned a number of volumes of sermons by Dr. John Tillotson; see Wright, Literary Interests of the First Carters...

[28] Yeaning means to bring forth a lamb. ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[28.5] Carter probably means the mill located on the southern bank of the eastern branch of the Corotoman River, about four miles due north of his home, on a tract of over 1,000 acres. It would be inherited by Charles Carter. (Sorrells. Landholders & Landholdings. p. 32. )

[29] Carter failed to complete his thought at this point.

[29.5] A chinch is a bed-or house-bug. ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[30]"Rosegill" was the Wormeley home in Middlesex County; it lay between Rosegill Lake and Urbanna Creek, across and slightly up the Rappahannock from "Corotoman." (Rutman and Rutman, A Place in Time: Middlesex. . . . p. 46 ff. )

[31] Waugh was an important overseer for Carter until his death in January 1726; he seems to have been in charge of Jackson's mill as well.

[32] Captain John Steptoe lived on land that later (about 1778) would be known as Kilmarnock in Lancaster County. ( B. Brainard Edmonds, Kilmarnock . Kilmarnock, Va.: Little Pebble Press, 1976, 6. )

[32.5] John Coppedge (d. ante 1724) appears as a justice of the peace in Northumberland County in 1714, but was not listed in 1726 there when the name appears as the surveyor of Lancaster County. ( Louis des Cognets, Jr., English Duplicates of Lost Virginia Records. [Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. 1981], pp. 27, 36. ; and Carter to John Chelton, April 6, 1724, for death date.)

[33] Collen was an indentured servant, a painter, whom Carter called "an honest carefull Sober felow and may be able to get a Comfortable livelyhood when he comes to his own man" in a letter of July 14, 1720 , to the Perrys. Although in that letter the clerk has carefully placed a crossing line on the vertical strokes of this name, it is likely that the name was "Collen" as Carter in this diary entry for March 10, 1723, Carter wrote the name as "Collen."

[33.5] Philip Smith was sheriff of Northumberland County in 1723-1724. (McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 4[1721-1739]: 34,67. )

[33.6] Charles Grymes (c. 1692-1743) was the son of John Grymes of Middlesex County, but lived at "Morratico," Richmond County where he was sheriff, burgess, etc. He was a member of the Council ( "The Grymes Family." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography . 28[1920]: 90-96, 187-94, 283-85, 374-75. and Ryland. Richmond County Virginia. . . . pp. 500, 504, 514.

[34] The Welcome was commanded at this time by John Trice (or Price) and was owned by London merchant James Bradley. The captain in 1730 as William Barnes. She was a vessel of about 100 tons. (See Carter s letter to James Bradley May 17, 1727 , and Adm. 68/195, ff.154r, Virginia Colonial Records Project, Albert H. Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia. University of Virginia. )

[35] Carter refers to this unidentified ship by its captain's name.

[36] This may be the Charles Jones who was a long-time overseer for Carter at Hills Quarter in Lancaster County.

[37] Nomini, or "Nomini Hall" as it would later be called, is on "Nomini Creek in Hague, Westmoreland County." This creek is in the northeast section of the county, and flows into the Potomac River. See the website ( for "Nomini Hall," which is open to the public, for more information about this interesting house.

[37.5] The letters ("lorights") that Carter wrote into the diary are clear, but his meaning is not.

[38] John Stark was a prominent Glasgow merchant in the sugar trade. He served as as baillie and provost (mayor) from 1725-1727. ( John M'ure. The History of Glasgow. [Glasgow: D. Macvean and J. Wyllie & Co., 1830. pp. 227-228] as seen on Google books; and "Provosts of Glasgow" at "Welcome to Glasgow" at

[38.5] "The dried bark of this [the sassafras] tree, used medicinally as an alterative; also an infusion of this." An alterative is a substance "having the tendency to produce alteration; esp. applied to medicines which alter the processes of nutrition, and reduce them to healthy action." ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[39] While the term "ingot" is generally used in the sense of "a mould in which metal is cast" or the resulting shape of cast metal, it is likely that Carter refers to a molded shape of sugar. ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[39.5] A carboy is "a large globular bottle, of green or blue glass, covered with basket-work for protection, used chiefly for holding acids and other corrosive liquids." ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[40] Carter mentions a Captain Darracott in letters of 1720 and 1721 to Bristol mechant John King, and a Captain John Darracott's wife, Cecilia, died in 1737 and was buried at the home of her father, William Massie Massey), of New Kent County. ( "Personal Notices From the Virginia Gazette," William and Mary Quarterly , 1st. ser., 5(April 1897): 242; "John Darracott of Hanover Co., Va. & his wives." Darracott Family Genealogy Forum on at examined 5/12/2010; and "Massie Family," ibid. , 1st. ser., 13(January 1905): 202-3. )

[40.4] Carter probably used the word "barge" in the sense of "a rowing boat; esp. a ferry-boat." ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[40.5] Urbanna was a town in Middlesex County built on lands orginally owned by Ralph Wormeley who resisted the idea after the town was authorized by the act of 1680. But development began after his death in 1701 and the passage of the third town act in 1706. ( John W. Reps. Tidewater Towns: City Planning in Colonial Virginia and Maryland. [Williamsburg,VA: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1972]. pp . 78-9. )

[41] Brick House Quarter was located in Lancaster County and was a "collection of parcels acquired before 1732 from various owners"; in the 1732 inventory, there were 20 slaves, 63 sheep, 45 hogs, and 46 cattle on the place. (Sorrells. Landholders & Landholdings. p. 23; and "Carter Papers: An Inventory.. . ." )

[41.2] Coleman's was a farm apparently in Lancaster close to Brick House and Pursells.

[41.4] Tobias Purcell purchased 150 acres in Lancaster County on the Corotoman River from Martha Norris on February 5, 1689, and Robert Carter bought the tract from him in 1696. The land would be a portion of that guaranteed to Betty (Landon) Carter in the jointure agreement signed before her marriage to Robert Carter in 1701.( Gertrude Entz Gray. Virginia Northern Neck Land Grants, Volume 1, 1694 -- 1742. [Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1987] p. 87. Google Books, 8/11/2011; )

[41.5] Captain John Steptoe lived on land in Lancaster County that later (about 1778) would be known as Kilmarnock. ( B. Brainard Edmonds, Kilmarnock .[Kilmarnock, Va.: Little Pebble Press, 1976] p. 6. )

[42] "Town" was Williamsburg to Carter .

[43] The "colledg" was the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg; Carter was on its board and often served as Rector.

[43.5] Falls is "the loose end of the tackle, to which the power is applied in hoisting," because it is "an apparatus for lowering bales, etc.; also Naut[ical] in pl[ural]." ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[44] Robert Biscoe (1699-1748) was born in London and educated at Chrst's Hospital school. He became one one of Carter's clerks about 1716, writing letters and keeping accounts for the busines. He completed his indenture in 1724, prospered modestly as a merchant and farmer, married Elizabeth Lawson, and in 1743, wrote a book, The Mechant's Magazine; or Factor's Guide. (See the lengthy sketch of Biscoe in Brown and Sorrells. People in Profile. pp. 45-56.

[44.5] Captain Peter Wills commanded the Booth in 1723-1724, and the Amity, a vessel of 500 tons and 21 men, in 1727-1729. ( Survey Report 6800 summarizing Adm. 68/194, and Survey Report 6801 summarizing Adm. 68/195,Virginia Colonial Records Project, Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library,University of Virginia. )

[45] Charles Jones was a long-time overseer for Carter at Hills Quarter in Lancaster County. Carter wrote to him there in 1727, and he appears in Carter's will as the overseer on that property.

[46] "Changlins" was a farm owned by Carter located in Lancaster County relatively close to Corotoman.

[46.5] Carter Burwell (1716-1756) was Robert Carter's grandson by his daughter Elizabeth (Carter) Burwell and her first husband, Nathaniel Burwell (1680-1721), and Elizabeth (1718-?) was his younger sister (Carleton. A Genealogy. . . of Robert Carter. . . . pp. 128, 143. )

[47] Carter probably refers to his grandchildren, Carter (1716-1756) and Elizabeth Burwell (1718-?) who may have taken dancing lessons from Charles Stagg (d. ca . 1735), the manager of the first theatre in Williamsburg, and a dancing master.

[47.4] This was probably Elizabeth Nelms (d. 1761) of Northumberland County, widow of William Nelms (1699-1719), ("Richard Nelms ." at Inspected 3/2/2010)

[47.5] Patrick Connelly appears on a 1716 list of titheables in Christ Church Parish, Lancaster County ( "Tithables in Lancaster Co., 1716." William and Mary Quarterly 1st. ser., 21[July 1912]:107. )

[47.6] "A malarial fever, marked by successive fits or paroxysms, consisting of a cold, hot, and sweating stage. The name ague was apparently at first given to the burning or feverish stage, but afterwards more usually to the cold or shivering stage, as being the most striking external character of the disease." ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[48] "The bark of various species of the Cinchona tree, from which quinine is procured, formerly ground into powder and taken as a febrifuge [fever reducing agent]." ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[48.5] John Tarpley (1661-ca. 1739) was sheriff and a justice of the peace in Richmond County. After complaints received by the Council, Tarpley was removed as a justice on May 22, 1723.( "Capt. John Tarpley I Family," , 8/24/2009; and McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 4[1721-1739]:38. )

[48.6] According to the Oxford English Dictionary, "resumed can mean "to take back to oneself (something previously given or granted)." Carter means that he will recover the money from the persons who endorsed Tarpley's bill.

[49] Samuel Bowman commanded the Lucia (or the Lucy ) which seems to have been a London ship.

[50] A hole in the page obscures a number of words at this point in the diary.

[51] A moidore was "a Portuguese gold coin current in England and its colonies in the first half of the 18th cent., then worth about 27 shillings (now hist.)." ( Oxford English Dictionary Online )

[51.5] Richard Hickman (d. 1732) had been deputy clerk of Middlesex County in 1709. After Governor Hugh Drysdale's death, the Council appointed him to manage the Governor's house and its gardens. His name appears a number of times in the Council minutes as he was its doorkeeper, and as he took out land patents. From Carter's letter to William Robertson July 15, 1727, in which he complains that "Mr. Hickman is very dilatory with his probatted Administrations," it seems that Hickman must have done other work for the colonial government. ( Edward W. James. "Libraries in Colonial Virginia." William and Mary Quarterly. 3[1,#4, Apr. 1895]:248-51 for Hickman's inventory recorded May 15, 1732, listing many books; "Notes from the Journal of the House of Burgesses, 1712-1726." William and Mary Quarterly. 21[1,#4, April 1913]:257 mentions his being Council doorkeeper; "Notes from the Journal of the House of Burgesses, 1727-1734, William and Mary Quarterly. 22[1, #1, July 1913]:54,56-58, mentions his being clerk of the Committee of Propositions and Grievances; and McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 4[1721-1739]:114. )

[51.5] This may have been William Buckner of York County who died in 1716. He had been a justice of that county, and also surveyor general of the colony. ( Library of Virginia. Online Index of Wills, 1/27/2010; and McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 3[1705-1721]:223.

[51.6] A flitch is "the side of an animal, now only of a hog, salted and cured; a 'side' of bacon." ( Oxford English Dictionary Online )

[51.7] Jowls are "the cheek," in this instance, the cheek meat of a hog. ( Oxford English Dictionary Online )

[51.8] A gammon is "the ham or haunch of a swine," or "the bottom piece of a flitch of bacon, including the hind leg; also, a smoked or cured ham." ( Oxford English Dictionary Online )

[51.9] "Betime" or "betimes" means "in good time, in due time; while there is yet time, before it is too late." ( Oxford English Dictionary Online )

[52] John Bashford (d. 1735), son of Symon and Grace Bashford, married Elizabeth Heath. In 1726 he was to present affaidavits in Northumberland County court to prove his parentage and marriage because "he had fallen heir to an estate in England." He had appealed to Carter for help several years earlier, and Carter had enlisted London merchant Micajah Perry to assist. ( "The Heaths of Northumberland County, Virginia," William and Mary Quarterly 1st ser. 24: 109-115] .)

[52.1] A shoat is a "young weaned pig." ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[52.5] Solomon Low was Carter's sons' schoolmaster in England. See Carter's letter to hime of July 5, 1723 .

[53] Pirogue was "originally: a long narrow canoe hollowed from the trunk of a single tree. . . . Subsequently also: any of various kinds of canoe or small open boat. ( Oxford English Dictionary Online )

[53.5] Carter means the Cherry Point in Lancaster County located "southwest of White Stone" down the Rappahannopck River from Corotoman.The name is still in use today. Miller. Place-Names . . . . p. 25.

[53.6] Gibson's Plantation was a property located close to "Corotoman" in Lancaster County. Carter purchased 375 acres in 1703 from Edward Gibson, later adding 90 acres from adjacent property. In Carter's inventory, Ezericum Crowder was its overseer, and Carter sometimes refers to the property as "Crowders." (Sorrells. title>Landholders & Landholdings. p.18; and Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ."

[53.7] Oronocco tobacco was one of two major types grown in Carter's day. It was "bulkier and coarser than sweetscented . . . had a sharper leaf 'like a fox's ear,'" and was stronger in flavor "than sweetscented." ( Arthur Pierce Middleton. Tobacco Coast: A Maritime History of the Chesapeake Bay in the Colonial Era. [Newport News, VA: Mariners' Museum, 1953]. p. 97. )

[54] Alexander Murrah was a Glasgow merchant.

[54.5] Parliament passed an act forbidding the importation of stemmed tobacco in 1722. John Randolph was sent to England in 1729 as agent for Virginia to try to have the act overturned; his mission would be successful. ( Arthur Pierce Middleton. Tobacco Coast: A Maritime History of the Chesapeake Bay in the Colonial Era. [Newport News, VA: Mariners' Museum, 1953], 116. )

[54.6] Out port means "a port outside a particular place; any port other than the main port of a country, etc.; spec[ically], a British port other than London." ( Oxford English Dictionary Online )

[55] The trading policies of Scots merchants were of considerable concern to Virginia planters and English merchants at this time, and the matter came before Parliament in 1723. Vessels sent by Scots were crewed by captains and factors authorized to pay good prices in Virginia which enabled them to obtain full cargoes. English merchants argued that the only way the Scots could afford to pay such good prices was their ability to avoid paying duties on the tobacco at home. Micajah Perry appeared before Parliament and gave statistics of the duties paid by his firm in earlier years and the far smaller amounts paid in the past several years because his ships could not obtain full cargoes in Virginia. (Price. Perry of London. . . . pp. 64-65. )

[55.4] William Downman was a justice of Richmond County from 1718, sheriff in 1722 and 1723, and a tobacco inspector in 1731 and 1732. (Ryland. Richmond County Virginia. . . . p. 504. and McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 4(1721-1739): 12, 34, 238, 286 )

[56] Carter took John Conway and George Davenport to court over a debt of £64/16/5 due from a bond they had given in 1712. (Jones, Orders Book Entries. . . . p. 114. )

[56.4] A bill of exchange is a kind of check or promissory note without interest. It is used primarily in international trade, and is a written order by one person to pay another a specific sum on a specific date sometime in the future. If the bill of exchange is drawn on a bank, it is called a bank draft. If it is drawn on another party, it is called a trade draft. Sometimes a bill of exchange will simply be called a draft, but whereas a draft is always negotiable (transferable by endorsement), this is not necessarily true of a bill of exchange. ( "Dictionary of Financial Scam Terms" at 8/22/2005 )

[56.5] The Coan River is located in Northumberland County flowing roughly northwest into the Potomac. Miller. Place-Names . . . . p. 31.

[56.6] Joseph Gregory "was a son of Thomas Carter II, and grandson of Thomas Carter the immigrant, of Barford on the Corotoman River near Merry Point." He would be appointed tobacco inspector in 1727 and a justice of Lancaster County in 1734. Apparently he was working for Robert Carter as a collector of quit rents and other fees at this time. (Brown and Sorrells. People in Profile. p. 18; and McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 4[1721-1739]:238, 320. )

[56.7] Quit rent was the term used for "a (usually small) rent paid by a freeholder . . . in lieu of services which might otherwise be required; a nominal rent paid (esp. in former British colonial territories to the Crown) as an acknowledgement of tenure," in this case, to the proprietors of the Northern Neck. Carter as the proprietor's agent, collected these payments. ( Oxford English Dictionary Online )

[57] The end of each of the last four lines on this folio break off without obvious damage to the page.

[58] There are several mentions of a ship named Content in Carter's diary and letters; various men commanded her at different times. She may have been a Liverpool vessel.

[59] Anne Carter (1702-c. 1743) had married in 1722 Benjamin Harrison IV of "Berkeley," Charles City County. She was Carter's first child by his second wife, Elizabeth (Landon) Willis Carter. (Carlton. A Genealogy. . . of Robert Carter. . . . pp. 2, 253. ).

[60] not used

[61] The Sarah was commanded by Captain Richardson and was based in Weymouth.

[62] Betty, daughter of Ralph Wormeley, married John Lomax (1675-1729), in1703. He was born in North Shields, Northumberland, England, and came to Virginia in 1701. Through his wife, he acquired "Portobogo," Essex (later, Caroline) County. He was a justice of the peace. (Lomax Family Bible records. .)

[63] Mangorite (or Mangorike) was a farm in Richmond County "in the vicinity of present Downing Bridge spanning the Rappahannock and present-day Little Carter Creek. . . . It consisted of 1,800 acres belonging to Colonel Moore Fauntleroy in the seventeenth century." Carter bequeathed it to Landon Carter. (Miller, Place-Names . . . , p. 93. . Greene, The Diary of Colonel Landon Carter . . . , 5. )

[63.3 ] Damask is "a rich silk fabric woven with elaborate designs and figures, often of a variety of colours. Also applied to figured materials of silk and wool, silk and cotton, or worsted or cotton only, used for furniture-covering, curtains, etc." ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[63.4] Linen is fabric made from flax. ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[63.5] Holland is, according to the OED Online, a "linen fabric, originally called, from the province of Holland in the Netherlands." states in its "Glossary of Textile Terms" that it was a "a closely woven white linen used especially for shirts and bed linen." ( "Glossary of Textile Terms." 18c New England Life: Clothing & Accoutrements. )

[63.6] Ell is a measure defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as "a measure of length varying in different countries. The English ell = 45 in[ches]."

[64] Tarpley and Downman were prominent citizens of Richmond County, each serving as sheriff at various times. (Ryland, Richmond County Virginia . . . , 500. )

[64.5] Muscovado is "raw or unrefined sugar obtained from the juice of the sugar cane by evaporation and draining off the molasses." ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[65] Thomas Carter (1672-1733) was the second of that name in Lancaster County, and may have been Carter's first cousin as there is evidence that their fathers were brothers. He lived at "Barford" in the northern part of the county. ( Catherine Adams Jones, The Early Thomas Carters of Lancaster County, Virginia . Lancaster, Virginia: Mary Ball Washington Museum & Library, 1982.

[66.5] Henry Fleet (d. 1735) was the third member of a distinguished Lancaster County family to bear this name, and was justice, sheriff in 1729-1730, coroner, surveyor of roads, and militia officer. ("Rebecca Banton Mysterious Woman of Wealth" in Brown and Sorrells. People in Profile, pp. 129-30. )

[66] This was a farm owned by Carter , probably located in Northumberland County where there is a creek of this name.

[66.5] James Read (Reid) is not referred to as "captain" which means he was an official of John Stark's firm on a trading vessel who was empowered to do its business in Virginia. He was aboard the Charles, a Glasgow ship that was owned by Stark. Carter specifically refers to "Your Ship" and "the Charles of Glasgow" in a letter to Stark of September 4, 1723 .

[66.6] William Whiteside commanded the Lucy in 1727; she was a brigantine, and apparently called at Madeira, as Carter ordered wine from merchants there by her. (See Carter to Heyward, Miles & Rider, June 29, 1727 .)

[66.7] This may have been John Bagge (1682?-1726), rector of St. Anne's Parish, Essex County, 1709-1711 and 1718-1726. He had served Sittenburne Parish in Richmond County, 1711-1716. Unfortunately, Carter did not note where the property was on which he took the mortgage which makes it difficult to determine the mortgagor. See letters to various merchants about this time reporting the bills of exchange that Carter wrote to pay the £200 to Bagge.( John K. Nelson. A Blessed Company: Parishes, Parsons, and Parishoners in Anglican Virginia, 1690-1776. [Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 2001]. p. 304. )

[66.8] Fustians is "coarse cloth of cotton and flax, thick twilled cotton with short nap." (( 18th Century Trade Terms (Fabrics), "Of Silk, Terms Of Silk, Cotton, Linen and Wool,"[Compiled from] The Beekman Mercantile Paper 1746-1799 at, 5/4/ 2007 )

[67] Thomas Lee (1690-1750) of Westmoreland County was the son of Richard Lee II, and nephew of Edmund Jenings; he would build "Stratford," and succeed Carter on the Council. For a good article on Thomas Lee, see that on Stratford plantation's website. ( Burton J. Hendrick. The Lees of Virginia: Biography of a Family. [Boston: Little Brown, 1935]. pp. 48, 51, etc. )

[67.4] The abbreviation "dd" that Carter used for the sugar may refer to double ground or refined, but "dd" is too common for the original meaning to be clear.

[67.5] Carter omitted the captain's last name.

[68] A butt was a "cask for wine or ale, of capacity varying from 108 to 140 gallons. . . . a measure of capacity = 2 hogsheads, i.e. usually in ale measure 108 gallons, in wine measure 126 gallons; but these standards were not always precisely adhered to." ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[69] Thomas Hooper was appointed sheriff of Stafford County in 1719. (McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 3[1705-1721]: 500. )

[70] Carter 's second wife, Elizabeth (Landon) Willis Carter, had died in 1719. (Carleton. A Genealogy. . . of Robert Carter. . . . p. 2. )

[70.5] John Lewis (1669-1725) of "Warner Hall," Gloucester County, had been a member of the Council since 1704. ( Louis B. Wright and Marion Tinling, William Byrd of Virginia: The London Diary 1717-1721 and Other Writings. [New York: Oxford University Pres, 1958]. p. 458 )

[70.6] Jonathan Gibson (d. 1729) "established Gibson's Tobacco Warehouse on the Rappahannock river on the dower land of his wife, Elizabeth (Thornton) Conway Gibson"; it was located "immediately opposite Port Royal in Caroline County. ( King George County Virginia Will Book A-1 1721-1752 And Miscellaneous Notes . [Fredericksburg, Va.: Privately Printed, 1978], 237. .)

[70.7] Carter probably means that the colts were castrated, marked, possibly by branding ("to mark indelibly, as a proof of ownership . . . by way of brand. spec. to mark [cattle or horses] with a brand."), and had their tails docked ("cut short, curtailed; with short or shortened tail") ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[71] Carter owned James Blair, Our Saviour's Sermon on the Mount ... Explained ... in Divers Sermons and Discourses . (Wright, Literary Interests of the First Carters... , p.55. )

[71.5] "The so-called Irish potato, a native of the Andes, was introduced into England in the sixteenth century. A ship is known to have carried potatoes from England to Bermuda in 1613, and in 1621 the governor of Bermuda sent to Governor Francis Wyatt of Virginia two large chests filled with plants and fruits then un-known to the colony, among them potatoes, which were planted and grown in the settlements along the James River. In 1622 a Virginia bark brought about twenty thousand pounds of potatoes from Bermuda to Virginia. Their cultivation did not spread widely, however, until a party of Scotch-Irish immigrants brought potatoes with them to Rockingham County, New Hampshire, in 1719. Because of this introduction and because potatoes had become a major crop in Ireland by the end of the seventeenth century, 'Irish' became a permanent part of the potato's name." ( "Potato" on , citing the Encyclopedia of American History, at ttp://, reviewed 2/12/2010.

[71.6] "Qualified" can mean "limited, modified, or restricted in some respect." Carter means that the cider h ad been dilued with water. ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[71.7] "Ipecac, the shortened form of ipecacuanha, was first brought to Europe from Brazil in 1649 by Piso, a Dutch physician; the dried root, reached Paris about 1658. . . . Ipecac was the only ingredient which was later found to be of any medicinal value." "The active alkaloid [of ipecac], emetine, causes vomiting. . . ." ( T. E. C. Jr. M.D. "A Brief History of Ipecac (Ipecacuanha)" published in Pediatrics , Vol. 46 No. 1 July 1970, pp. 96, and online at Inspected 2/12/2010 ; and Chelsie Vandaveer. "What is ipecac?" online at,, Inspected 2/12/2010 ).

[72] Reid was captain of the Charles , a Glasgow ship.

[72.4] Richard Haynes was one of Carter's sloop captains, and his name is found relatively often in the diaries. See also Carter's letters to Richard Meeks, June 30, 1729 .

[72.5] A pistole was a "Spanish gold double-escudo dating from the 1530s and surviving into the 19th cent.; (also) any of various coins derived from or resembling this from the 17th and 18th centuries." ( Oxford English Dictionary Online ).

[72.6] Rack was a "beverage now generally composed of wine or spirits mixed with hot water or milk and flavoured with sugar, lemons, and some spice or cordial; but varying greatly in composition with time and place. Usually qualified by the name of a principal constituent, as arrack. . . . ." Arrack is "a name applied in Eastern countries to any spirituous liquor of native manufacture; especially, that distilled from the fermented sap of the coco-palm, or from rice and sugar, fermented with the coco-nut juice." ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[72.7] This mill, sometimes referred to by Carter as the small or little mill, was located in in the "northwest corner" of Robert Carter's Poplar Neck Quarter in Lancaster County near the head of Dymer Creek about a mile south of present-day Kilmarnock on Route 3. Carter had acquired the property from Reverend Andrew Jackson and others in 1695. William Waugh supervised it. (Sorrells. title>Landholders & Landholdings. pp. 11, 15, 20, 23. )

[72.8] Drum is the "name of various American scaenoid fishes which have the power of making a drumming noise; among these are the 'salt-water drum' (Pogonias chromis) found on the Atlantic coast. . . ." ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[73] Hugh Drysdale (ca. (1670-1726) was lieutenant governor under the Earl of Orkney, the titular governor who never came to Virginia. Drysdale arrived in Virginia in September 1722 and ruled the colony until his death in July 1726. Carter, as president of the Council, would succeed him.

[73.5] William Russell (1680?-1741) was a well-known ranger and explorer who eventually settled in Prince William County (later Fauquier). Fairfax Harrison thinks he may have been one of the rangers who accompanied Spotswood's Knights of the Golden Horseshoe. (Harrison, Landmarks of Old Prince William. p. 204. )

[73.8] George Mason III (c. 1690-1735), justice, sheriff, burgess, and county lieutenant of Stafford County,father of the constitutional theorist. (Copeland and MacMaster, The Five George Masons. pp. 50-86 ; and George Harrison Sanford King, The Register of Overwharton Parish Stafford County Virginia 1723-1758 And Sundry Historical and Genealogical Notes . [Fredericksburg, VA: privately printed, 1961.] )

[73.9] John Tayloe (1687-1747) of Mt. Airy, Richmond County, who served as justice, burgess, colonel of militia, and as a member of the Council after 1732. (Ryland. Richmond County Virginia. . . . pp. 115-16. )

[74] Willoughby Allerton (1664-1724) was a prominent citizen of Westmoreland County where he was burgess, sheriff, and militia officer. (Allerton Genealogical Data at, 4/16/04; and McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 3[1705-1721]: 92,146,381,420. )

[74.5] "Hickory Thicket" was located in Richmond County "northeast of Warsaw" according to Miller's Place-Names of the Northern Neck of Virginia , p. 66. (Miller, Place-Names . . . , p. 93.

[75] It is not clear what property Carter refers to; he had an overseer named Roger Oxford in 1732, and it is possible that Oxford was already working for Carter in 1723. The property presumably was in Richmond or Westmoreland counties.

[75.5] Lawrence De Butts (1693-1752) was Irish-born and educated at Trinity College, Dublin. He came to Virginia in 1721 and became the minister of Washington Parish in Westmoreland County. After his marriage, he left Virginia for Maryland where he was minister of William and Mary Parish until his death. ( John K. Nelson. A Blessed Company: Parishes, Parsons, and Parishoners in Anglican Virginia, 1690-1776. [Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 2001]. p.97 . )

[76] "Cole's Point" was in Westmoreland County " in Coles Neck just east of Lower Machodoc Creek on the Potomac" according to Mary R. Miller. The property, of some 1,350 acres, descended to Robert Carter III, according to Louis Morton. (Miller, Place-Names. . . . p. 32. and Morton, Robert Carter. . . . p. 70.

[77] This farm has not been identified.

[77.5] Old Ordinary , a tract in Westmoreland County, had 15 slaves, 87 hogs, 57 cattle, 27 sheep, and 6 horses in the 1733 inventory of Carter's estate; James Whaley was then its overseer. (Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ." .)

[77.6] Henry Ashton (1670-1731) was a prominent citizen of Westmoreland County where he was burgess, justice, and sheriff. (Norris. Westmoreland County, Virginia. p. 107; and David W. Eaton. Historical Atlas of Westmoreland County Virginia. Richmond: Dietz Press, 1942, in an undated reprint. p. 43.

[78] Old Ordinary , a tract in Westmoreland County, had 15 slaves, 87 hogs, 57 cattle, 27 sheep, and 6 horses in the 1732 inventory of Carter 's estate; James Whaley was then its overseer. ("Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ." )

[79] "Belfield " (Bellfield) or "Rock Spring" is in Richmond County and "has belonged to the Bellfield family since the early eighteenth century, and was named for the spring one quarter mile below the house." (Miller, Place-Names. . . . p. 136. )

[79.5] This mill was located on the southern bank of the eastern branch of the Corotoman River, about four miles due north of Carter's home, on a tract of over 1,000 acres. It would be inherited by Charles Carter. (Sorrells. Landholders & Landholdings. p. 32. )

[80] A mill's "waste" is a gate or other device in the mill dam that allows the discharge of water not needed to turn the wheel. (Derived from the definitions in the Oxford English Dictionary

[81] Thomas Woodward commanded the Providence , a London vessel of about 90 tons owned by John Hyde and Company. ( There are a number of records concerning this vessel in Adm. 68/194 [ff. 27r, 77r, and 130r] and /195 [ff. 152v] which may be consulted in the records of the Virginia Colonial Records Project, Albert H. Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia. )

[82] Falls Quarter was located in King George County, and had twenty-four slaves, three horses, and thirty-eight cattle in the 1732 inventory of Robert Carter's estate; it lay on lands patented in March 1704 by James Innes for Carter . ("Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ." ; and Harrison, Landmarks. . . . p. 198. )

[82.3] Carter's Home Quarters included his holdings in Lancaster County, many of which had been obtained by his father, and most of which he had inherited from his older brother. "Corotoman lay at the southernmost point of these tracts on the north bank of Carter's Creek. (Sorrells. Landholders & Landholdings. p. 25. )

[82.5] James Carter (1684-1743), of Stafford County, was the younger brother of Carter's dear friend and associate, Captain Thomas Carter of Lancaster County, and was one of Carter's chief managers. ( Joseph Lyon Miller, "Captain Thomas Carter and His Descendants," William and Mary Quarterly. 1st ser., 17(1908-09): 275-285. )

[82.6] The glebe in an colonial Anglican parish was the land owned by the parish on which its minister lived. In the case of Lancaster County's two parishes, Christ Church and St. Mary's White Chapel. it consisted of some 839 acres lying about two and a half miles (longer by roads) northeast of "Corotoman." John Bell, the minister during Carter's lifetime, lived there. Carter as a church warden, would have been one of those responsible for the upkeep of the house on the property.(Sorrells. Landholders & Landholdings. p. 11. )

[83] John Coppedge appears as a justice of the peace in Northumberland County in 1714, but was not listed in 1726 there when the name appears as the surveyor of Lancaster County. ( Louis des Cognets, Jr., English Duplicates of Lost Virginia Records. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. 1981, 27, 36. )

[84] Broad Run lies in today's Fauquier and Prince William counties, running roughly northwest to southeast until it joins Cedar Run in Prince William to form the Occoquan River. ( Alexandria Drafting Company. Regional Northern Virginia. [Alexandria, VA: Alexandria Drafting Company, 2002.] See the indexes and maps for these counties. )

[85] Little Fork drains into what was named the Hedgeman River, a branch of the Rappahannock, on the 1751 Fry-Jefferson map; modern maps label the Hedgeman as the main branch of the Rappahannock. It was in the area labeled as Prince William County by Fry and Jefferson.

[85.5] A John Webb was the overseer at Morattico a large farm of some 1,800 acres in Richmond County, in the 1733 inventory of Carter's estates. (Miller, Place-Names of the Northern Neck. . . . , 19, 102-103, and "Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ." )

[86] Carter probably acquired this Lancaster County property from Jackson; it is referred to in the Lancaster County Court Orders book as "Robert Carter . . . his mill formerly called Jackson's mill." (Jones, Orders Book Entries. . . . p. 321. )

[87] This property is six miles southeast of Williamsburg; in his will, Carter directed that it be called "Carter's Grove" in perpetuity, and this is the name it bears today. The house on the property was built by Carter's grandson, Carter Burwell, beginning about 1750.

[87.4] Mrs. Sullivan ran the boarding house where Carter stayed while in Williamsburg.

[87.5] The Oxford English Dictionary states that dunghill fowls are "common barndoor fowls, as distinguished from the game-cock, etc. "

[87.7] Richard Chichester (1657-1734) came to Virginia in 1702. He married Anne Fox Chinn, and settled in Lancaster County. ( "Virginia Gleanings in England," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography , 21 (1913):249-253. )

[87.8] Lancaster County Court Orders Book 7, 1721-1729, p. 129, as abstracted in Jones, Orders Book Entries . . . Referring to "Robert Carter. . . ."

[87.9] Charles Barber had been sheriff of Richmond County in 1704 and 1715, and its surveyor in 1721. (McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 3[1705-1721]: 271,398, and 540 )

[88] "William Forrester had been murdered on November 5, 1723, by Thomas Glascock whose son Gregory was named as an accessory." The lands owned by Glascock reverted to the proprietors, and Carter apparently managed them for some years for the benefit of Glascock's heirs; he later acquired title to the properties which are mentioned in his will. (Ryland. Richmond County Virginia. . . . p. 101.

[88.5] John Tarpley (1661-ca. 1739) was sheriff and a justice of the peace in Richmond County ( "Capt. John Tarpley I Family : ?England and Virginia. " )

[88.6] There is no property named "Wallace" in Carter's will. Perhaps he refers to it by its overseer's name.

[88.7] There is a Lyons Creek on the south side of the James River slightly upstream from "Carter's Grove." It forms the boundary of Surry and Isle of Wight counties.

[88.8] John Fitzhugh (d. 1733) of Stafford County, a younger son of William Fitzhugh of "Bedford." He was a burgess from Stafford in 1727. ( "The Fitzhugh Family." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. 7[1899-1900]: 317-19. )

[88.9] Thomas Posford commanded ships trading to Virginia from London for many years. He was a friend of William Byrd (1674-1744) who recorded Posford's name in diary entries made both in Virginia and in London. Two of his commands were the Harrison and the Hannah . (Tinling, Marion. The Secret Diary of William Byrd. . . . ; Louis B. Wright and Marion Tinling, eds. The London Diary (1717-1721) and Other Writings. [New York: Oxford University Press, 1858]; J. Douglas Smith. "[Capt.Posford mentioned in Byrd's Diary 1709-12-commander of the ship "Harrison]" 'Wetherburn's Tavern Historical Report, Block 9 Building.' Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Library Research Report Series-1638. at; and Survey reports 6800 on Adm. 68/194 and 6801 on Adm. 68/194-5, Virginia Colonial Records Project.

[88.95] A Captain John Cobb commanded the Willis , a ship of 300 tons with 20 men, in 1727-28. The ship was owned by merchants Haswell and Brooks which may have been a London firm. ( Survey Report 6801 on Adm. 68/194-5, ff. 4r, Virginia Colonial Records Project, Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia. )

[89] "In an action of debt between Charles Burges Gentleman plt & Bryan Pullen deft for thirteen thousand pounds of Tobo . . .," the parties agreed to allow Carter "finally to decide & determine their difference on this suit from which they jointly agree not to appeal. . . ." (Lancaster County Court Orders Book 7, 1721-1729, as abstracted in Jones, Orders Book Entries. . . . p. 116. )

[89.4] Matthew Kemp was a successful merchant in Middlesex County where he was also a justice, militia officer, and sheriff. (McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 4[1721-1739]: lv, 12, 107, 200, 205. See also numerous references in Rutman and Rutman, A Place in Time: Middlesex. . . . )

[89.5] William Downman was a justice of Richmond County from 1718, sheriff in 1722 and 1723, and a tobacco inspector in 1731 and 1732. (Ryland. Richmond County Virginia. . . . p. 504; and McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 4(1721-1739): 12, 34, 238, 286 )

[89.6] Simon Sallard (d. 1747) was referred to in the 1733 inventory of Carter's property as "Mr." He was then the manager of the plantations in Richmond and Northumberland counties, and the overseer of Brick House Quarter in Richmond County. ("Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ." ; Morton. Robert Robert Carter of Nomini Hall. p. 33; and Greene. The Diary of Colonel Landon Carter. . . . p. 304. )

[89.7] In Carter's time, a chariot was a light, four-wheeled open carriage. ( Oxford English Dictionary. )

[90] Captain Constantine Cant commanded the Buwell which may have been owned by William Dawkins and Micajah Perry as Carter would report her arrival to each of them. ( Adm. 68/194-195, found in the microfilms of the Virginia Colonial Records Project, Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia ; and Survey Report 6800 for Adm. 68/195, ff. 76v, op. cit. . )

[91] This probably was the Princess Amelia, Weymouth merchant Edward Tucker's ship commanded by Captain Lawrence. (Survey Report 9729 detailing the Weymouth Port Books, found in the microfilms of the Virginia Colonial Records Project, Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia.)

[92] John Zuil was a merchant and was probably the ship's captain that Carter mentioned in his diary August 1,172,. "Zuil Saild Gave me a Bottle Snuff." In what British city Zuil lived is not clear, but it may have been Liverpool because city directories of 1767-1773 list a John Zuil as a merchant, first in Cable Street, and later, in King Street. This probably would have been a son of the man Carter knew, given the shorter lives at this period. ( "Yuil Family Newsletters," Issue #24 Fall. 1998http://www., 11/6/2009. )

This revised text posted March 29, 2010.