Robert King Carter's Correspondence and Diary

   A Collection Transcribed
        and Digitized
   by Edmund Berkeley, Jr.

List of Letters | About This Collection

Electronic Text Center , University of Virginia Library


Robert Carter Diary, 1724

     Robert Carter records the work being done on his plantations, the prevailing winds and a hurricane, visitors he received including members of his family, trips to Williamsburg and the sums he spent while there, arrival of ships with goods from Britain, movement of tobacco from outlying farms on his sloops and its placement on ships bound for Britain, and details of his bouts with gout.

Robert Carter Diary, 1724

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[Kept at "Corotoman" on the Rappahannock River, Lancaster County, Virginia]


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[January 1, 1724]

New Years day W [ind] fresh at northwest a clear
day gave a Crown to Amy Cosby 2/6 to Isbel
a milled Shilling a piece to Mary Lucy George

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January 2 1723/4 Joseph Gregory arrived last night from the falls
brought 37 hogsheads my own Tobo 5 mr Burwells
2 Grasons 1 Colonel Spotswoods , a hogshead beans
27 hogs
a fair day W [ind] at south
5 Gregory went away for Woodward's
& the LL Tobo a northeast W [ind] held 2 days
7 my daughter Burwell came
9 Colonel Page came here & his Family
Henry Bell here
10 Thomas & Ashley here
11 did their Business
13 monday first day I got on my
shoes wrote to mr Harrison mr

my Daughter Burwell had
a piece Canting Pins Laces for my
Keiling sloop here 6 l [b] w [hi] t [e] sugar
to the house 3 days ago
A Guinea to my Daughter Page her
nurse a Guinea for a New Year's Gift
A Guinea for ditto to my Daughter Burwell
13 Major Robinson came here
16 my Sloop came from Potomac
my Overseers came down with 14 hogs
2 Beeves brought ten Negroes with them
17 Colonel Page & my Daughters &c went
away Mary & Lucy stayed behind
my boat brought me my Letters from Cole mr

19 my Sloop from Captain Woodward was brought
into the Creek I would not receive her until
20 I fetched my cider ashore
22 my Sloop went away with 46 hogsheads Tobo on
board the Betty Captain Keiling
24 I lent Henry Lawson 41 shillings & 5 pence
29 my Sloop came home
February 1 Joseph Gregory came home brought 17 hogsheads freight
for Captain Woodward, 11 my own from Peumds End
3 from Scrine 4 Coles Point 2 from Mattox
of LL 37 stripped 2 leaf in all 66 hogsheads
my Sloop carried aboard Captain Woodward 20 hogsheads came
the 2d February rained hard all Night

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M [odern] S [tyle] 1724 1723 /4
February 3d a rainy day W [ind] at [nort] h in the Night
4 It snowed all the morning in the Evening
W [ind] at northwest froze hard mr Dove came here
spoke to me for my sloop
5 a cold clear morning W [ind] at northwest Coachman
goes for Corn to Indian Town
Joseph Gregory goes away with 30 hogsheads for Captain
6 a cloudy morning W [ind] at southeast a fresh Gale
Yesterday Ben from mrs Burwell came
here wth a Letter about Nell -- --
12 Joseph Gregory returned from Piankatank [River]
Burwells Sloop came here for 30 hogsheads of my
tobacco 12 from my own house took in that day
went away that Night to Fleets bay for
the rest
13 I went to mr Wormeleys christening stood
Godfather Mat Walker with me Betty
mrs Kemp Godmothers Child
named John Gave to the Midwife & &xCuedr
to the Woman that Suckled the Child for the
Present 2 milled 1/2 Crowns
Received my Daughters Packet
14 at Night got home
15 answered my Daughters 1/2 Sheet letter
Ben kept here until the 17th before I could
get him over the river.
17 Load aboard my Sloop 14 hogsheads to go aaboard
the Bailey
Adam Graves lay here last Night.
Carried my Letters with him to Machins
for Keiling Ben went wth him
18 Captain Woodward Sailed wth a north W [ind]
Joseph Gregory sails aboard the Carter
north W [ind] has blown hard 3 days & Nights
19 W [ind] continues northwest hard very cold
gave 6 pound sugar to Isbel 2 pound t [o] Martha for Chocolate
my Sloops lie before house W [ind] too hard to go off.
20 My Sloop got aboard Graves
21 Robert & his Sisters got home Captain White
came wth them Captain Eskridge here
I sent mr Wormeley a Carboy Jam [aican] Rum
a pair shoes for Ralph
Stag came here mr Meeks here
22 I set mrs Burwell's Ben over the river
mr Thomas Colonel Ball here
mr Harrison & my daughter came
Peter Smith had a bottle rum Garland here

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February . . . 1723/4
24th I sent for Trunk from Captain Carters
28 my Son & his wife & my Daughter Burwell
came here
Mar 2 nd Mr Harrison & his wife went away
abundance of rain & wind the beginning of
this month
9 George Turbervile here brought me Evans Lettrs
12 our Court had a dispute wth [William] Sydnor about the way
my Son mrs Burwell &c went away
13 Thomas Edwds &c here paid me some Bills
I wrote to Colonel Mason &c
14 my flat went aboard [omission in text] with 5 hogsheads 10 hogsheads
went in 2 flats before 14 in my Sloop.
first fair day a great while W [ind] northwest a Thun
der shower last Night.
my Sloop with Gregory came home
Gregory had a bottle rum
16 Harry Thomson brought home my boat I paid
him 4"10" -- Sterling had the Anchor & Cable
a fair day W [ind] southwest my flat goes for Elias Edmunds hogshead
18 Robert Biscoe debtor Sterling

  to 96 gallons rum at 2/9 per gallon   12.14. --
  To 166 sugar at 5 pence per pound   3. 9
     16. 3.2

18 My Son George & the two boys went
to mr Scott this day
20 Captain Hollad [a] y arrived came ashore wth my
Son Charles before the Ship got up
[Charles] Stagg was here came here about 3 Clock
Colonel Pages man Sawney came here
23 the Captain Wattson came in
23 at Night my Sloop went in to Captain
Holladays Employ at 12£ sterling per month
had a new Suit of sails my best Cove
ring an Anchor & Cable out of the other Sloop
24 Adam Graves broke ground anchored
a little above my house
25th Sent my Letters aboard Ship sailed down
the river anchored against mr Churchils
weighed from thence W [ind] blew hard at southwest
very squawly I sent Graves a barrel tar
Sent to Richard Meeks 40 pounds sugar & 10 pounds before
I sent my Letters away to Colonel Page mrs Bur [we] l [l]
27 Biscoe had linen for 2 Shirts
a barrel Corn to Walter Heard

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March 27th 1724
I bottle a Cask Nomini cider 2
killed Thomas Wests Steer
another Cask Nomini cider toda [y bottled?]
April 1 W [ind] at northwest blew fresh all [day]
2d my Sons went for York 4 hor [ses . . .]
I gave Robert 10 shillings Cash Charles had a pistole w [eigh] t
1"1"8 & 20 shillings Cash silver
Settled Accots with Joseph Gregory
April 4 I received the Accot of Daughter Burwells
Marriage to Doctor [George] Nicholas Colonel Pages
Lettr on good Friday Tells the particulars
My Weymoth beer & cider came home
I gave Odar 5 quarts rum
1st borrowing day blew hard at northwest pretty
cold 2 borrowing day W [ind] the same blew
easy 3d good Friday a fine day
this day a fine day
13 To Peter Smith a pair worsted Stockins a pair Plain
to the brickmaker a quart rum he began mould
ing today
14 Captain Phil Smith 2 bottles claret
Peter Smith owes me wth Captain Carter near £4" -- " --
I gave directions to Captain Carter to give 10 shillings
for common Tobo light hogsheads 12 shillings for heavy
Oronocco weight 800 net 14 shillings for heavy StStf [sic ]
Joseph Gregory had 25 fathoms rope for
main halliards a new Cable & Anchor
a drap box 2 dead Eyes.
fryday 17 April I went to Colonel Pages Saturday I went
to mr Burwells found no body at home mrs
Nicholas went [to] Captain Willis
Monday morn 20th went to Town saturday
returned to Colonel Pages Monday 27 went to mr
Burwells mrs Nicolas did not appear
Thursday 30th Carter Burwell went to the
college I gave mr Griffin a guinea for him
I gave [the] governor's man Kitt a Guinea 20 shillings for my escheaters
Commission 6 shillings to himself to the governor's
Coachman 2/6 to the lantern boys 2/6 a Pis
tole I left wth mr Hickman for the governor's servants
1/2 pistole I gave Mrs Countes 5 Shillings to her
maid 4 shillings to the servants at mrs Sullivan's 15 pence
to Tom at Bocock 7/6 to mr Holloway Coachman

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May 1724
[While in To] wn paid barber & man 7/6
[At my daughter W] ormleys I gave Joiles 5 shillings
[I lef] t wth my Daughter Page 30 shillings for
Sarah . . . her Accot for my Girls
I was at Our Court took the Oaths
gave mr Heale his Sheriffs Commission
he gave me a pistole for It.
Brickmaker told me 12 May he had 50,000 brick
13 Gregory came home from the falls brought 48 hogsheads tobacco
I gave mr George Heal his Sheriffs Commission he paid
me a pistole
18 I [was] washing my Sheep 135 olds 36 Lambs
Joseph Gregory goes for Dividing Creek
I gave Captain Smith his sheriff's Commission
he promises 20 shillings
I bought of mr Austin Moore 41 Negros to wit
6 men & 4 women mr Harrison had for Seating
the Land I bought of Thomas Randolph 6 men 4 women a girl I gave
to his daughter Betty Harrison 6 Negroes
4 men 2 women I bought for mr Burwells Estate
6 Negroes 4 men 2 women Colonel Page had
for Seating the Land I bought of Major Hol
1 Girl I gave to Carter Page -- --
10 men 7 women I sent home
I bought of mr Pratt 28 Negros Colonel Page had
for the aforesaid settlement George & his Family
Simon his Son Scipio his Son Robin &
his Family Montross his wife hannah his daughter
Old Jack Beck his wife Jemmy his Son
Row his Child Nero a boy all Valued by
my [sic mr?] Pratt at 148 Pound & Ebo Natt Colonel
Page had on the aforesaid Accot at 18 thousand
all [£] 180:10 shillings
May 23th mr Hooper went away mr Barber
went away my Son Robin went to Colonel Page
Joseph Gregory brought home 17 hogsheads from Dividing
Creeks & fleets bay &c I gave Enoch Innis a
pistole mrs Hooper 10 bitts for her ferriage --
25 Captain Holladay
came here had notes for
my fork tobacco Rowland went wth Holladay
Joseph Gregory went away for Stafford
I received a Letter from mrs Young .

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May 28th 1724
my son Charles & Gumby caught 4 dru [m]
2 bonitas at the Locust
29 I was out till 10 o'clock had never a B [ite?]
gave John Harvey 1 pair worsted 1 pair Yarn Stoc [kings]
1 pair plain 1 pair fall shoes
memorandum I lent Charles Coachman at Town 5 shillings
30 I gave a note to Peter Skelton for a barrel Corn
my Mill spindle was mended by James Keys
Charles Coachman fetched Corn from the Hills 2 hogsheads
mr Stagg here Colonel Balls Family Alexander Bell
William Kemp was here Yesterday
Carried aboard the Carolina Yesterday 12 hogshead
this day 18 hogsheads in all 30 hogsheads
June 1 monday I settled an Accot with Colonel
I lent him Seventy Pounds
I paid mr Bertram for Captain Fowler 11 hogsheads Tobo
last Night very cool a hard north W [ind] little rain
2d I went to Court middlesex Aldin promised me my money
Austin Smith promised me to Ship me a
hogshead Tobo I had at his house I agreed wth mrs Young
she is to come on the 20th Instant is to Serve me as
a housekeeper for a 12 month I am to pay her 12£
sterling 6£ Currency at the End of the time
I received from mr Boin the military Commissions
for the Northern Neck also 3 sheriffs' commissions
I came home in the Night
-- --
3d I wrote to Colonel s Mason Lee, Smith also Charles Lee
about the military Commissions
my Son Robin brought me a Letter from Colonel Page
4 Captain Charles Lee had the Northumberland Commission
Colonel Ball had those for White Chapel Captain
Carter our Parish
mr John Turbervile had rum sugar & Molasses
Sunday 7th Captain Bowman arrived brought me
Lettrs from Stark, an Accot of mrs Burwell's
hogshead of wine sent per the Littlepage cost
11"14 shillings " I received per the Lucia Sam Bowman
13 1/2 dozen bottles Claret 3 dozen Burgundy 3 dozen
bottle [s] champagne I took 50 hogsheads freight cer
tain on him 10 or 20 incertain
Sent by Bowman the Military Commissions
for King George [County] to Colonel Smith for Stafford to Major
wrote to both of them they had the
sheriffs Commissions Sent to them

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[June] 1724
. . . I wrote to Colonel Lee with the military commissions
. . . for Westmoreland
[sen] t to Captain Newton his sheriff's commission
[e] n [c] lose to Major Woodbridge his commission
15 Captain Russell had 4 hogsheads at 5£ per ton
I send six bushels of Wheat to Mill
send for Indian [corn]
I was at Mill 13th June met Purtel & Garl [an] d
16 Captain Russel carries away my Letters to Captain
Captain Fauntleroy Colonel Barber
-- --
18 Major Escridge came here I came from Captain
Smith at Night
Eskridge had a pair of my Daughter Marys shoes
2 ounces of Nuns thread 2 gro [ss] Corks carried away
on 20th 6 Letters the Rent Rolls brought me two
Plats for Colonel Page & I [sic ] several other plats
from Savage
Joseph Gregory arrived in the Creek this day
I gave out the Coachman a Curricomb &
brush mr Stagg now at Colonel Balls my
Children there 5 of them
3 days ago I sent mr Moore my Bills of exchange
to make up mr Bells money I lent him
seven Pounds five shillings & six Pence sterling
Joseph Gregory brought 76 hogsheads tobacco All were got into
the house that Night in a tatterd Condition
21 my Sloop came home from the falls
wth Holladays men
22 they Landed 29 hogsheads Tobo here my
fork [Quarter] Crops except 3 belonging to the Secretary
his 3 hogsheads makes two, mine will make
just 20 prized hogsheads -- -- -- -- --
23 we have a Vestry this day to appoint
Veiwers. [sic]
25 delivered mrs Young the following things
2 fans a piece Narrow Tape a piece broad Gar
a piece Kenting 2 brushes 1 pound Sweet powder
1/4 pound fine w[ h] t [e] brown thred
Isbel had a pair my shoes 2 pair slippers several
pais r thread stockings for George w [hi] t [e] & mixed Color.
Isbel had 2 pairs Gloves came in for her --
Taylor had drugget for a frock ine [sic ] Check
for 2 pairs Breeches a jacket for George .
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June 26 1724
. . . Joseph Gregory went for Poto [mac on Wed]
nesday the 24th Charles Coachman wen [t for Coroto]
man 25th
July 2 begun of my new Coffee Martha had . . .
29 hogsheads of my tobacco went aboard the Carolina
my Sloop hove down
48 hogsheads went aboard the Forward Captain Russell
5 Captain Holladay & Russell turned as low as Law
W [ind] at northeast Captain Eskridge kept here
by Rain & wind
gave Doctor Mann 2 dozen Madeira 5 gallons
rum 3 gallons Jamaica rum 20 pounds brown sugar a loaf
4 dozen cider French brandy 1 gallon
-- --
9 James Webb has 2 peck [s] Salt for the people
I gave Captain Halladay 6 Gamons 3 hogs 2 barrels Corn
1 dozen Chickens [omission in text] geese
10 I began to Still Doctor Edgar came here
Ben went away wth my Letters for Bagwell
-- --
the 8th my Sloop went away wth 37 hogsheads Tobo for
Captain Bowman the Lucia
Yesterday Holladay & Russell went out
14 went over to Colonel Wormeleys so to Mr Grymes by
Coach in the Execution of a Commission from the
Chancery stayed there all Night finished the
Business by 2 Clock came away went to Rose
in mr Grymes Chariot dined at mr Worm [ley's]
reached home by sunset Examined 4 Wit
nesses in the Cause mr Needler our Clerk
-- --
16 Charles Coachman carried 6 Bushels Wheat to Mill
17 Captain Russell came here Colonel Ball his wife &
Family here sunday morn went away came
a munday morn
19 Sunday 3 Clock my Son Robin not well was
taken in the Night wth the Gripes held him
until Wedensday [sic ] noon then had a plentiful dis
charge by several Stools his feav pain left him Slept
the latter part of the Night very easy has
taken first a purge pill duobus then Manna
& Senna abundance of Glysters frequently
laudanum in the extremity of his pain
23 yesterday last Night & today very rainy
the 18 it rainrd plentifully, W [ind] at northeast all today
Doctor Bell has been with my Son 3 days now
now he & Russell stopped by the rain

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July 1724
[ . . . ] [Gave] to Doctor Bell the following medicines
. . . duobus 2 ounces cantahrides, 2 ounces some Vitrio
. . . ounces white Vitriol Docto [r] Edgar came here Thurs
day in the rain stayed with my Son until Sund [ay]
morning 26th
Colonel Barbar & his Son came here 25th
Captain Bowman was here 24 my Sloop wth
his man came home 24th brought me 26 hogsheads from Ric [h] land
27 my Gardiner mows the rest of my yard
Friday 24 began to Still brandy
mr Lee [Captain] Zuil & Turberville came from Church
with me went away on monday
28 Colonel Page & his wife my son & his wife came here
30th Colonel Page began to Complain next day seized
with the Gout in one hand
Richard Lee came here Thursday stayed until wedn [es] day
following Captain Pinkard came here Tuesday
4 July went away Friday the 7th my Sloop wth
Gregory 2d of July brought 68 hogsheads Tobo 4 hogsheads Corn
35 out of Stafford 15 out of Westmoreland 18 out
of North [umberlan] d damaged the 6 prized hogsheads came from
Newtons greatly we threw away 1/2 the Tobo
James Whaley came down wth Negro Jack
the 5th of July Complained he wanted rain
had a quart rum & bottle 1 pound powder a hair bag
for Syd [no] r
7th rained all night long W [ind] northeast blew hard
Stagg came here about one Clock
8 rained & blew hard the same W [ind]
I sent to my Mill this morning my Coachman
brot me an Accot there was a hole in the
flood Gate Price & his People W Waugh &
his People gone to mend It
Charles brought home a bag of Mill Wheat 9
busells [sic ] of Indian [corn] 6th
8 [sic ] I sent Billy to the home quarters wth Order to the
Overseers to Trench their Tobo Ground & draw
off all the Water they possibly Could.
I pumped out of my cellar this morning abu [n]
dance of Water
10 came my letters from Perry & Dawkins wth
my Accots Sales from Perry
11 W [ind] at northeast at Night blew fresh rained W [ind] by fits

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August 12 1724
W [ind] northeast all last night very stormy & rainy
the morning continued a hard storm at northeast
until past one then the W [ind] flew about to W [est] W [ind] blew
hard & continued raining my houses all
full of Water my cellar has near 2 foot Water
my boats all swimming in the house.
my cider house blew down about 9 o'clock a pro
digious Tide my boat was fetched cross the
pond Swam over the Marsh
towards 3 Clouds begin to thin W [ind] westardly blows
violent hard several trees blow down both Cherrys
& Apples at 4 o'clock rain but little W [ind] at W [est] & hard
still Cloudy & small rain then the W [ind] shifte [d]
to southwest blew very hard about 9 at Night my
flood Gates blew up & my dam went
13 a calm hot day a very low Tide
Colonel Smith came here this day Colonel
in the Night Curling came
14 Curling took in 12 hogsheads of my tobacco
15 Curling sailed down to Lawsons
Zuil went clear out of the river
Suttle came down to give me an Acc
ount of Dickinsons Mill being gone
16 Sunday went to Church had rain
in the afternoon
17 Calm hot very rainy launchd my
18 W [ind] at East in the morning shifted
to southeast blew violent hard a very high
Tide abundance of Rain in the Night
W [ind] came to northwest
my Sloop with Captain
Lotheringtons men went out
of the Creek Sunday last the 16th
18 Tuesday made 3 butts cider began to beat
19 beat 3 Butts cider
20 Colonel Page my Son their wives went away gav [e]
them 2 pots sweetmeats my Son has lent to him
2 Negros I bought of mr Pratt Cain & Jack I have his receipt
made three Butts cider all in the brick Cellar

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August 21 1724
made 3 butts cider 22th made 3 butts cider
Captain Bowman sailed out of the river
gave him a barrel of Corn & a hog & a barrel wheat
24 gave mrs Young some Needles
William Morris finished my hand Mill on
Saturday we ground 4 bushels Indian [corn]
25 I went to See the ruins of my Mill found
John Shaw drunk at Prices had not been at
work that day
26 I went to the School to William Waughs
make three Butts of cider every day
mr William Jones is indebted to me for
106 gallons rum at 20 pounds tobacco per gallon
224 pounds Sugr at 4 pounds Tobo per pound
I was at the Mill yesterday I sent to the carpenters
Crofts a vomit 1 ounce Bark a pint madeira
29 this day we make 33 Butts cider Charles Jones
tells me Harrison Threatens to fetch away a Colt
of mine wch he can swear to has a brand Iron
to Brand It & another at Wolf house I go to the
Mill came home in the night
Meeks came down the 25 went away 26th carried
two new spades 2 Shirts for the German On [e] for hims lf
29 measured in my Mill 34 Barrels Corn
rainy moist giving weather ever since
the Gust & so Continues
31 W [ind] southwest clear cool morning Gardiner mows
one of plats
at the Office 4 hogsheads shelled Corn about 4 bushels over
paid to Captain Bellandine on Accot of Joseph Gregory & by his
desire 20 shillings currt money
at the Indian Town this day 7 hogsheads shelled Corn
September 2 my Son Robert went to Colonel Pages I let him
have 2 pistoles 30 shillings in Cash
Captain George Turberville here went away Brickmaker
came here Sent two Cask [s] cider to the Mill
wrote by Bellandine to the 4 upper [s] Collnl
mr George Turberville agreed wth me to Saw me 6 thousand
foot of Oak Plank 4 thousand 1 3/4 thick [sic ] 2 thousand 2 1/4 th [ick]
at Dickeson Mill what is wanting there
at Nomini Mill the remainder if I
want any more he undertakes to saw
I am to give him at the rate of 3£ per thousand
I am his people [s' ] diet he is to begin on
Monday next. I went to my Mill,

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September 3 1724
mr Henry Lawson pays me 2 pistols & ballance [s] Accots
4 I was at Mill mr Stagg has missed twice
7 Margaret Carter had 10 pound wool 5 pounds sugar she paid 5 bitts
my sloop was brought home this morning
Charles Jones has been at my Mill a week they had 30
hands last week they have 40 hands this week
a cloudy day W [ind] northeast threatens rain George & Frank
goes to Mill carry a Crow [bar] a great Claw hammer
several bolts & hook pins McClean carrys the
Mophradie and smoker Cooper brings my
9 Sent in my Sloop to mr Thomas Berry the following
Barbados Goods

rum 8 Cask alias tierce, 4 tierce, sugar 6 tierce, mola [sses]
  9 -- 80 1/2   N1.552"30   N1 -- 86
  10 -- 69     5.536"31     2 -- 79 1/2
  11 -- 64     8.560.30     3 -- 63
  12 -- 64     9.532.30     4 -- 72 1/2
  13 -- 63     2 | 80| 121     5 -- 83
  14 -- 49 1/2     121         8 -- 89
  15 -- 66 1/2     2059     473
  16 -- 78           
          23 gallons rum went to fill these Cask [s]

  10 paid the Glasier for my own work   3" -- " --   
     for the Church & Glebe   1"  7" --

a Snaffle bridle a pound pepper for the odd money
12 I was at Mill removed the Barrows to the hither
End of the dam
14 I agreed with William Nugent I go to Mill we have
48 hands there now [John] Shaw begun hewing a Saturday
fine weather all last week & Continues we begin
our fodder every where I finished cider making the 9th
We have made in all 61 Butts
18 paid Gregory Hinch blicklayer [sic ] 42 shillings for the Jobs
he did about my house
My people at the Mill began to have mea [t]
Captain Pankard & mr Eustace people stole 2 Sheep
from Camel we began to Level the Wast [e]
mr Stagg came here had missed 6 weeks
19 Coachman & the Gardiner sick this week
21 Colonel Balls [sic ] had 1 dozen best madeira 1 dozen ditto w [hi] t [e] 1 dozen
ditto red 6 wine Glasse [s] 6 cider [sic] Glasses 1 cruet 6 quarts s fre [nch]
brandy 2 dram Glasses 1 fine Search 1 pr Girls shoe [s]
of Lycys [sic ]
my Tumbrells & Billy went to the Milly [sic ] carried
100 pound Bacon for this weeks Provision
mr Henry Lawson had 25 pound sugar paid 12/6
22 prepare for my Journey to Nomini yesterday got
all my pieces in place for my pierhead except 3 they
                                                                     got to the Mill Cen [ter]

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September 29 1724
Was at LL Magorite Quarters all that Estate
wants Corn except Childs Quarter
30 took a view Nomini Plantation went
to Asburys Mill gave several Instructions
See a little book of memorandums of the
Expence of my time at Potomac
October first came from Nomini 1/2 an hour past 9
o'clock got to my Mill befor [e] 4 o'clock stayed a [omission in text] g [o] t
home a little after daylight shut in
2 sent a piece Cotton to Major Eskridge quart [omission in text] 86 1/2 yds
sent 6 heavy grubbing hoes to Nomini
Colonel CLee [sic ] paid 4 Guineas & a half guinea for
the Quit rent 14 hundred Acres Land he hold [s]
in Stafford & 2800 in King Georg [e County]
for the Year 1724 & for 100 Acres more
in King George for 5 Years wch he saysd
is more then his deed in King George contains my receipt
obliges me if it appears to be so to allow it
2 was at Mill 3 at Mill again a Cow killed at Indian Town
I sent to mr William Strother the following Bar [bados]

  Rum    sugar   Molass [es]
    N2: 110 1/2 gallons   3.1442 . 90 .   [cask mark] 6 .  61 gallons
  RC3 .  104 gallons      [cask mark] 7. .  65 gallons

Sent to Mill wth C [harles] C [oachman] 100 pounds Bacon
-- -- --
5th stopped the water at my Mill met
Captain Carter & his Son came home in the Night
It rained all the way
6 a fair morning W [ind] at West stayed at home to
send away my Sloop wth my Negroes to the falls
7th W [ind] at northwest my Sloop Sets out for the
falls carrys twelve New Negros with her
8 men 4 women & also the Girl Rose all
well Clothed & bedded all the things Gregory
carried for the several quarters are set down in Bis
The 3 sloop men had each a gallon rum
mr Savage here brought down the Bull Run
Survey & John Russells
mr Meeks came down for Nomini & LL clothes
I was at [the] Mill there parted wth Savage. by
him wrote again to Strother
I answered Doctor Nicholas Letter by Peter

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1724 October 10
parted wth Meeks at my Mill we join
the 2 Dams this day rode over went to widening
the dam
Mdum 12. monday widened the Dam
all day 25 foot of the waste cut mr Buckner
and Micou went away Charles Jones sick
John Rhodes took his place William Waugh took
his place the Cart carried cider [sic] & Meat fresh
13 W [ind] at northwest Cloudy & rainy morning Gibson
carried away the Cloths for Coles Point
14 I was taken wth a violent Loosness held me
for 24 hours then stopped
16 I went to Mill Charles Jones came that day
John Rhodes was pretty drunk I turned aw [ay]
Shaw he would always be running from
his work, my loosness retuned held me
all night mr Robinson lay here
17 I paid mr Henry Lawson 48 shillings for Peter Skelton
My Water at the Mill was up in the Pier
head & run in the Conduit
18 Sunday in the afternoon my Loosness
returned had 4 or 5 Stools before I went
to bed slept well until 5 o'clock without
disturbance mr Turberville lay here -- --
Begun upon my new thread
Monday 19th October My Mill ground 1 1/2 bushels of Mea [l]
20 she ground 2 barrels Indian [corn] 1 of wheat
21 I set out for Town carry with me 29" shillings Spanish Gold 2 [doubloons]
6 moidores 8 guineas 7 £ Spanish money 5 of English
November 9 I got home gave away at Colonel Pages 12/6 Agreed
with Doctor Nicholas the 7th his wife signed the writing
I gave to Joiles 2 1/2 Crowns
11 I prepared for my Sloop going to the falls Biscoe's
Time was out my sloop went away on Friday the
13 a fair wind Saturday I discharged my people
from the Mill 10th 11 begun woodcutting 14 agreed
wth Demarrat wrote to Meeks sent away George & Brown
14 a fair wind for my Sloop Sunday a fair wind
16 Colonel Charles Grymes here gave him a Power to receive
Richmond [County] Rents he had mr Downmans Rent rolls
for 1722
Monday morning Robin went over the river
16.17th wrote my Letters via Weymoth
18 rainy 19 we had a Vestry at Night Sawney
came brought me Secretarys packet met Robin in the way
Friday 20th I wrote to Colonel Page sent to mr C Robinson
Secretarys Accots

-ff26v -

FRiday 20 Novembe r 1724
wrote to the sheriff of Spotsylvania [County] sent him
a Copy orders for the Secretarys dues
sent the Secretarys Accot & Copy orders for them
to Captain [Thomas] Newton sheriff of Westmoreland [County] by Roger
to mr Meeks
Sent the same to Townson Dade by Samuel
Wilson also Copy of the Marriage license
orders also sent to French Mason
late sheriff of Stafford
the governor's orders on him for the marriage license
the said Wilson had 4 warrants Awbrey had 2
warrants for taking up Land Oxford agreed wth [me]
to be my Overseer at Richland , wth James
Connor to be my Overseer at the Office .
21 Saturday I was at the race had the News
there of mrs Bells death I was at my Mill
this day
22 Sunday mrs Young went to mr Bells mrs
Bell buried on Wednesday mr Yates preached
lay here that Night 26th Thursday mrs Young
came home
23 Captain Darracott Captain Hull came in the later
[omission in text] brought me some Goods from King
24 hard north W [ind] 25 blew fresh at Night got
my Goods on ashore
26 agreed with Jon Read to be Overseer at
Pantico sent by him the Secretarys Accots
to Colonel Grymes wrote to Colonel Barber also mrs Colston
Deeds [sic ]
27 Stagg came here in the afternoon 3 o'clock
28 I was at the Race
29 Sunday morn Stagg went away
30 Let the Coachman have 10 shillings has leave to
go abroad G Eves here had two warrants
I agreed wth Ja Murphy to be Overseer at Met
in the room of Robert Thomas
December I went to the Mills &c
2 wrote to Strother by G Henry by him sent
away the Secretarys Accots to Spotsylvania
& King George [counties] sheriffs &c.
3d Cold weather hard frosts these 3 last
days W [ind] from north to northwest
I set my kiln [sic ] on fire Monday evening
[Tom] Gumby fetched Meal the 2d December 9 bushels
4 bushels malt for Ale 1 bushel out of the new hogshead
4 Gumby carrys to Mill 6 bus [he] l [s] old wheat
Robin kills 4 hogs at Old House 4 ditto at
Indian Town

-ff27r -

December 4th 1724
3 days ago my Son Charles drew off out of my pip [e]
of wine 30 dozen bottles 5 dozen more drew afterwards
To Henry Bell 8 shillings for ferriage signed Conditions
5 put up the Ale put out my [kiln] [sic ]
Captain Kenner here Gumby fetches flour
Collier a bottle rum 6 bushel Indian came
lost 5 bits to Captain Kenner received 10 shillings of him escheat
At Night came my Sloop we got out the
6 Beeves Tallow weighs here wth the bag
94 pounds Strothers weight is 108 pounds 343 old iron
5 hogsheads Corn 1 hogshead Wheat a Buck 2 Tubs butter
15 bushls Wheat at Strothers allowance & the doctor's
-- -- --
6th W [ind] at north Cold the Buck weighs 101 pounds
the Corn came from Pewmonds End 312 [pounds] old
iron from the falls by my Scales
I agreed wth William Campbell for Nathaniel Burwell Plantation
15 all this week very sharp Thomas Berry was [here]
had 5 Deeds
I paid the Collier all to [omission in text] he had 13/8 Cash
I agreed wth Hugh Kelly I paid Richard Haynes and
Brooks I killed the old house Indian Town &
Changlins hogs in all now & what killed before
33 hogs from hills Seven hogs from Wolf
5 hogs
The Two Tradesmen mr Perry by Captain Ho
laday Frost & Birch came home from
Colonel Pages 9th December
Coachman carried 6 bushels best Wheat
to Mill brought home 9 bushels Indian [corn]
16 goes for 9 bushels Indian more
I paid the weaver for all his Cloth
Ten hogs came from Thomas Wests Cooper 4 hogs
17 Charles goes for 9 bushels Indian carries 6 bushels
new wheat [sic ]
4 hogs from Old Plantation Nassaw brought my cider
from Waugh I agreed with Thomas Glascock
18 a fine moderate day. Charles brings a hogshead Salt to
the Pantry, goes to Mill carries from Sloop land
ing six bushels old Wheat
received of William Camp two notes of Ed Newgents paid
by him one of 18 shillings the other of 21 shillings
84 hogs in all brought down this day the 22 nd December
moderate foggy weather
23 a fog 24 at Night my Son Robin came home
2 pipes of Wine Came from Captain
Woodward begining
of this week

-ff27v -

December 26 1724
Came home my Smith & Bricklayr
in the Burwell
she arrived 21 st into York river
28th I agreed wth John
Smith to be miller at Nomini
29 I paid to Monsieur Harman Arigo in Cash 3 shillings 10
wonderful fine Weather ever since Christmas day
Calm & warm these 2 last days -- --


Source copy consulted: Robert Carter Diary, 1722-1727, Robert Carter Papers, Acc. No. 3807, Albert H. Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia. Charlottesville.

[1] Alexander Spotswood (1646-1740) had been the governor from 1710 to 1722.

[1.4] Thomas Woodward commanded the Providence, a ship owned by Captain John Hyde & Company, during a number of voyages to the colony, 1723-1729. ( Survey Report 6800 summarizing Adm. 68/194 and Survey Report 6801 summarizing Adm 68/195, Virginia Colonial Records Project, Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia, and Carter's letter to the firm, September 17, 1723.)

[1.5] Henry Bell was the overseer at Pewmonds End plantation in the 1733 inventory of Carter's estate. (Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ." )

[1.6] Jack Ashley is mentioned a number of times in Carter's diary; he lived in Spotsylvania County and apparently was an overseer for Carter at one time although he does not appear in the 1733 inventory of Carter's estate. (McIlwaine, H. R., ed. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . . 4 [1721-1739]:254 ).

[2] Captain William Keeling (Keiling) commanded the Betty ; see Carter's reference to him on January 22nd. ( Survey Report 6800, Virginia Colonial Records Project, Albert H. Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia.)

[3] Carter had both an overseer and a "joyner" named Cole.

[4] Thomas Woodward commanded the Providence , a London vessel of about 90 tons owned by John Hyde and Company. ( There are a number of records concerning this vessel in Adm. 68/194 [ff. 27r, 77r, and 130r] and /195 [ff. 152v] which may be consulted in the records of the Virginia Colonial Records Project, Albert H. Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia. )

[4.5] The text in italics at this point was added by a later hand than Carter's.

[6] John Wormeley (1689-1727), one of Ralph Wormeley's (d. 1701) sons for whom Carter had been a trustee before he came of age.

[6.5] This probably was Mrs. Mathew Kemp, wife of the successful merchant in Middlesex County where he was also a justice, militia officer, and sheriff. (McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 4[1721-1739]: lv, 12, 107, 200, 205. See also numerous references in Rutman and Rutman, A Place in Time: Middlesex. . . . )

[6.6] The letters that Carter wrote are clear, but his meaning is not. Apparently he gave the midwife a sum for which his letters are an abbreviation, but none of the information about coinage in use in Virginia at the time in John J. McCusker. Money & Exchange in Europe & America 1600-1775 A Handbook. [Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1978] has solved this minor mystery.

[7] The Bailey apparently belonged to William Dawkins and had various captains over the years including Adam Graves, John Graves, and Thomas Dove. ( The vessel is mentioned a number of times in Adm. 63/194, /195, and /196. See the survey reports and microfilms found in the microfilms of the Virginia Colonial Records Project, Albert H. Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia. )

[7.5] A ferry across the Rappahannock from Lancaster County was located at this Middlesex County property, probably owned by Thomas Machen who appears in the records of Christ Church Parish, Middlesex, in 1725. ( Churchill Gibson Chamberlayne, editor. The Vestry Book of Christ Church Parish Middlesex County, Virginia 1663-1767. [Richmond: Old Dominion Press, 1927] p. 202. )

[7.6] A carboy is "a large globular bottle, of green or blue glass, covered with basket-work for protection, used chiefly for holding acids and other corrosive liquids." ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[8] Carter did not complete this entry but he was referring to a dispute with William Sydnor over the route of roads leading to Christ Church. (Jones, Orders Book Entries . . . Referring to "Robert Carter. . . ." p. 118.)

[9] "Thos. Edwards, a little petty Fogging Lawyer the Clark of our County that hath as much Mettle and more cunning for Contention then his predecessor had" RC wrote to Landon Jones, July 23, 1723. Edwards was clerk from 1720-1746. ( Within the Court House at Lancaster. Lively, VA: Lively Printing Services, [1976], 15.)

[10] George Mason III (c. 1690-1735), justice, sheriff, burgess, and county lieutenant of Stafford County, father of the constitutional theorist. (Copeland and MacMaster, The Five George Masons. pp. 50-86; and George Harrison Sanford King, The Register of Overwharton Parish Stafford County Virginia 1723-1758 And Sundry Historical and Genealogical Notes . [Fredericksburg, VA: privately printed, 1961].)

[11] Carter did not complete this thought.

[11.4] Elias Edmunds was a sustantial landowner in the northwest section of Christ Church Parish, Lancasteer County. (Sorrells. Landholders & Landholdings. pp. 30, 43-46, 48. )

[11.5] Robert Biscoe (1699-1748) was born in London and educated at Chrst's Hospital school. He became one one of Carter's clerks about 1716, writing letters and keeping accounts for the busines. He completed his indenture in 1724, prospered modestly as a merchant and farmer, married Elizabeth Lawson, and in 1743, wrote a book, The Mechant's Magazine; or Factor's Guide. (See the lengthy sketch of Biscoe in Brown and Sorrells. People in Profile. pp. 45-56.

[11.6] Alexander Scott (1686-1738), had received an M. A. degree from the University of Glasgow before coming to Virginia. He was the minister of Overwharton Parish, Stafford County, 1711-1738, and a considerable land speculator. He was one of a number of ministers who ran schools in addition to their other duties, and it seems likely that it was to his school that George and the "two boys" were sent.. There are numerous references to him in Fairfax Harrison's Landmarks of Old Prince William. (Copeland and MacMaster. The Five George Masons. . . . p. 78; Harrison. Landmarks. . . . pp. 146, 158, 200, 257, 284-85, 337, 665; and ( John K. Nelson. A Blessed Company: Parishes, Parsons, and Parishoners in Anglican Virginia, 1690-1776. [Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 2001]. pp. 318 & 375, fn. 40 )

[12] William Holladay commanded a ship named the Princess Carolina. ( Survey Report 6800, found in the microfilms of the Virginia Colonial Records Project, Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia. )

[13] Carter omitted the name of the ship.

[14] Thomas West was the overseer at Blough Point Quarter in Northumberland County when Carter's inventory was prepared in 1733. (Carter papers: An Inventory. . . ." .)

[14.5] A pistole, often called a doblon, was a "Spanish gold double-escudo dating from the 1530s and surviving into the 19th cent.; (also) any of various coins derived from or resembling this from the 17th and 18th centuries." See the illustration on page 5 of John J. McCusker. Money & Exchange in Europe & America 1600-1775 A Handbook. [Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1978.], and discussion in note 3 on page 6. ( Oxford English Dictionary Online ).

[15] Carter uses an old Scots expression for the last three days of March.

[15.5] Philip Smith was sheriff of Northumberland County in 1723-1724. (McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 4[1721-1739]: 34,67. )

[15.6] Oronocco tobacco was one of two major types grown in Carter's day. It was "bulkier and coarser than sweetscented . . . had a sharper leaf 'like a fox's ear,'" and was stronger in flavor "than sweetscented." ( Arthur Pierce Middleton. Tobacco Coast: A Maritime History of the Chesapeake Bay in the Colonial Era. Newport News, VA: Mariners' Museum, 1953. p. 97 )

[16] Carter's abbreviation "St Stf" may mean "Stripped Stuff."

[16.5] For Carter, "town" was Williamsburg.

[16.6] Carter Burwell (1716-1756) was Robert Carter's grandson by his daughter Elizabeth (Carter) Burwell and her first husband, Nathaniel Burwell (1680-1721). Carter Burwell would live at "Carter's Grove," and would marry Lucy Grymes in 1738. (Carleton. A Genealogy. . . of Robert Carter. . . . p. 128. )

[17] The College of William and Mary in Williamsburg.

[17.5] Richard Hickman (d. 1732) had been deputy clerk of Middlesex County in 1709. After Governor Hugh Drysdale's death, the Council appointed him to manage the Governor's house and its gardens. His name appears a number of times in the Council minutes as he was the doorkeeper, and as he took out land patents. From Carter's letter to William Robertson 1727 July 15, in which he complains that "Mr. Hickman is very dilatory with his probatted Administrations," it seems that Hickman must have done other work for the colonial government. (Edward W. James. "Libraries in Colonial Virginia." William and Mary Quarterly. 3[1,#4, Apr. 1895]:248-51 for Hickman's inventory recorded 1732 May 15 listing many books; "Notes from the Journal of the House of Burgesses, 1712-1726." William and Mary Quarterly. 21[1,#4, April 1913]:257 mentions his being Council doorkeeper; "Notes from the Journal of the House of Burgesses, 1727-1734, William and Mary Quarterly. 22[1, #1, July 1913]:54,56-58, mentions his being clerk of the Committee of Propositions and Grievances; and McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 4[1721-1739]:114. )

[18] Mrs. Sullivan ran the boarding house where Carter stayed while in Williamsburg.

[19] "The Honorable Robert Carter Esq In pursuance to the act for settling the militia took the oaths appointed by Act of Parliament. . . ." (Jones, Orders Book Entries . . . Referring to "Robert Carter. . . ." p. 118.)

[19.5] George Heale was sheriff of Lancaster County 1724-1725. (McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 4[1721-1739]:67,86. )

[19.6] Dividing Creek lies in Northumberland County north and east of the present-day town of Kilmarnock flowing into Chesapeake Bay "between Hewlett Point and Kent Point. . . . ." (Miller. Place-Names . . . . pp. 40-41. )

[19.7] Philip Smith was sheriff of Northumberland County in 1723-1724. (McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 4[1721-1739]: 34,67. )

[20] Augustine Moore (c. 1685-c.1734) of "Chelsea," King William County, a justice and prominent leader. ( J.H.P., "The Gorsuch and Lovelace Families," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. 25(1917): 431-444.)

[20.4] This may have been Thomas Randolph I1683-1729) "of Tuckahoe," Henrico County. Where the land referred to is not clear.

[20.5] Elizabeth (Harrison) Randolph (1724-1745) was called "Betty." She was Carter's granddaughter by his daughter Anne and her husband, Benjamin Harrison IV. Betty would marry Peyton Randolph, and their son, Benjamin Harrison V, would be a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and governor of Virginia. ( "Harrison of James River," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. 32(1924): 97; and Carleton. A Genealogy. . . of Robert Carter. . . . p. 259. )

[21] Carter Page, son of Mann and Judith (Carter) Page was born about 1724 and died unmarried. (Carleton. A Genealogy. . . of Robert Carter. . . . p. 252.)

[21.5] Charles Barber had been sheriff of Richmond County in 1704 and 1715, and its surveyor in 1721. (McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 3[1705-1721]: 271,398, and 540. )

[21.6] Fleet's Bay is at the east end of Northumberland County not far from Corotoman.

[22] Carter would buy from Innis a Richmond County property toward the end of 1728. Enoch Innis inherited it from his father, James, who died in 1709. ( Lucy Jane Brent Palmer, "Charles Brent of Stafford County and Some of His Descendants," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography , 34(1926): 280-85 and 378-84; and "Abstracts From Records of Richmond County, Virginia," William and Mary Quarterly , (1)17(1908-09): 176-177, which cites records of Richmond County concerning this will, probated 25 December 1709, as from Will Book 3.)

[22.5] "Applied in the Southern States of N. America, in the West Indies, etc., to small silver coins forming fractions of the Spanish dollar, or (when these are obsolete) to their value in current money. . . . In the eighteenth century the bit was generally the old Mexican real = of a dollar or about 6d. sterling; later values assigned are a half pistareen or of a dollar, of a dollar, and (in some colonies) the value of 1d. sterling." ( Oxford English Dictionary Online )

[23] Fork Quarter was a farm in Richmond County that would become a part of the "Sabine Hall" estate as it was bequeated to Landon Carter. In 1732, William Galloway, the overseer, supervised 16 slaves, 42 hogs, and 54 cattle. ("Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . .")

[23.5] Mrs. Elizabeth Young was applying to be Carter's housekeeper. He would agree with her on May 2 for one year's service but found her satisfactory and she remained for a longer term. She went to England in May 1728. (Diary June 2 1727, and Carter to William Dawkins, June 28, July 26, and August 22, 1727, for her first name. Carter to Pemberton May 8, 1728, for her sailing to England.)

[23.6] Drum is a "name of various American scaenoid fishes which have the power of making a drumming noise; among these are the 'salt-water drum' (Pogonias chromis) found on the Atlantic coast. . . ." ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[23.7] Carter had a clerk named John Harvey, and there are notes on some of his letters, "Harvey to copy." A John Harvey witnessed his will, and some of its codicils, which is logical if Harvey had written it out for Carter. However, on November 14, 1729, Carter wrote to Micajah Perry that Harvey, "whom you sent me from the Hospital," had completed his service, indicated that he did not trust Harvey, and intimated that Harvey may have stolen some accounts of the Burwell estate of which he requested copies from Perry.

[23.8] According to the on line "Glossary of Mill Terms," the spindle is "the shaft on which the runner millstone rotates." (, seen 4/19/2010)

[23.9] Dr. Bell has not been positively identified, but may have been Dr. Alexander Bell of Lancaster County who died in 1742. ( Virginia Magazine of History and Biography , 35(1927):217. )

[24] The Tarpley family was a prominent one in Richmond County; a John Tarpley was a justice of the county court for many years and served as sheriff several times. (Ryland. Richmond County Virginia. . . . pp. 500, 504.)

[25] Probably Charles Lee of Wicocomoco Parish, Northumberland County.

[25.5] St. Mary's White Chapel Parish comprised the northwestern poertion of Lancaster County. See the map opposite page one of Sorrells. Landholders & Landholdings.

[25.6] John Turbervile (d. 1728) was a justice, burgess, and sheriff of Lancaster County. ( "Tithables in Lancaster Co., 1716." William and Mary Quarterly 1st. ser., 21[July 1912]: 106-11; and "Turberville Family of VA," at, reviewed and downloaded 10/31/2002 )

[26] Samuel Bowman commanded the Lucia.

[27] John Stark was a merchant, probably the one to whom Carter referred when he wrote to Micajah Perry on 4 July 1723 that he had drawn an order on "Mr. Stark of Glasgow." On that same day, he wrote to a John Stark, referring to Captain Bowman.

[28] Henry Fitzhugh (1706-1742) of "Eagle's Nest," Stafford County, married Lucy Carter (1715-1763), Robert Carter's fourteenth child, in 1730. They had four children; after Fitzhugh's death, she married Nathaniel Harrison (1713-1791). (Carleton. A Genealogy. . . of Robert Carter. . . . p. 451.)

[28.4] Thomas Newton was sheriff of Westmoreland County in 1724. (McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 4[1721-1739]67:. )

[28.5] Samuel Russell commanded the Princess Amelia, a ship owned by Edward Tucker. ( Survey reports 9711 and 9729, found in the Virginia Colonial Records Project, Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia. )

[29] While Carter owned several mills, this is probably the one he sometimes called the "Small Mill." It was located in Lancaster County "on the Eastern branch of [the] Corotoman" River." The property of 40 acres had been purchased by John Carter II in 1670 from Thomas and Elizabeth Haynes. ( Christine A. Jones. John Carter II of "Corotoman" Lancaster County, Virginia. [Irvington, VA: Foundation for Historic Christ Church, 1978.], p. 73.)

[29.5] Moore Fauntleroy (1679-1739), a prominent citizen of Richmond County where he was a justice in 1714; he married Margaret Micou. (; and Beverley Fleet. Virginia Colonial Abstracts . . . Richmond County Records 1703-1724. (Privately published, [1943?]. p. 97. )

[29.6] Nun's thread was a very fine bleached linen thread originally made by nuns, and used for lace making. ( Louis Hammuth, Dictionay of Textiles . New York, 1915, p. 112. Digitized by Google. )

[29.7] Fork Quarter was a farm in Richmond County that would become a part of the "Sabine Hall" estate as it was bequeathed to Landon Carter. In the1733inventory, William Galloway, the overseer, supervised 16 slaves, 42 hogs, and 54 cattle. (Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ." )

[29.8] "Vestries in the 1720s appointed people to serve as 'tobacco viewers,' a task that over-production of tobacco and the resulting low price of this staple made necessary. 'Tobacco viewers' inspected planters' crops to ensure that no one planted more tobacco than the law allowed." ( Edward L. Bond. Spreading the Gospel inCcolonial Virginia: Sermons and Devotional Writings. [Lanham, MD: Lexington Books in Association with the Colonial Williamsburg ..., 2004]. pp. 18-19. Available online through Google Books.)

[29.9] "This must be a reference to the linen textile originally from Goerlitz, Silesia, variously spelled "garlix, garlits, gulick, gulix, or garlick." The textile could be fully or partially bleached. The term is sometimes paired with 'Holland,' indicating linen cloth, originally bleached at Holland, from whence it got its name. Eventually, 'Holland' became generic for linen. The textile would be used for clothing, such as aprons or shirts, as well as household 'linens'." (Linda Baumgarten, curator of textiles and costumes at the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, email to the editor, 5/4/2007.)

[30] "I believe the reference is to 'kenting,' a fine, closely woven linen made in Kent, Britain. It was used for table linens, aprons, etc." ( Email to the editor, 27 October 2001, from Linda Baumgarten, Curator of Textiles and Costumes, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, to whom I am most grateful for the useful advice.)

[30.5] Thread stockings must have been light weight or summer ones because thread means "a fine cord composed of the fibres or filaments of flax, cotton, wool, silk, etc. spun to a considerable length; spec. such a cord composed of two or more yarns, esp. of flax, twisted together. . . ." ( Oxford English Dictionary Online )

[31] Drugget was a "heavy cloth of wool, or of a mixture of wool and silk or wool and linen, used chiefly for clothing." ( Oxford English Dictionary Online )

Mary R. Miller states that "Lawson's Island" lay in Lancaster County "adjacent to Island Neck Creek (now Whitehorse Creek)" and that "it may have been the land lying between Whitehorse Creek and the Rappahannock River." No island shows on the 1969 "Lancaster County Primary and Seconday Highway Systems" map. As this ar ea lies across Corotoman Creek from Carter's home, he would have been able to see what the two ships were doing. (Miller. Place-Names . . . . p. 83. )

[31.6] In the 1733 inventory. a John Webb was the overseer at Morattico which was a large farm of some 1,800 acres in Richmond County where there were several of that name. Carter had bought it from Moore Fauntleroy; "it was located on the hill just south of the present Totuskey Bridge. The farm had eight slaves, thirty-six hogs, and a horse " (Miller, Place-Names of the Northern Neck. . . . , 19, 102-103, and "Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ." )

[31.7] A peck is "a unit of capacity for dry goods equal to a quarter of a bushel." ( Oxford English Dictionary Online )

[32] A gammon was a ham of cured hog meat.

[33] Carter failed to add the number of geese.

[33] Carter probably is referring to Captain Thomas Bagwell of the Levett, a ship that apparently sailed for the Perrys from London. (McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 3[1705-1721]: 15.)

[35] At this time, a chariot was a light, four-wheeled open carriage.

[36] The gripes were an intestnal disorder marked by pain and cramps. William Byrd in his Secret Diary refers to an outbreak of them in February 1709, and comments that some had died from the disorder. ( Louis B. Wright and Marion Tinling. The Secret Diary of William Byrd of Westover 1709-1712. Richmond, VA: Dietz Press, 1941. pp. 9-10.)

[37] According to the OED, manna is "a sweet pale yellow or whitish concrete juice obtained from incisions in the bark of the Manna-ash, Fraxinus Ornus, chiefly in Calabria and Sicily; used in medicine as a gentle laxative."

[37.5] A duobus pill was one that was composed of "two principal ingredients." ( Ambrose Godfrey Hanckwitz. The Compleat Course in Chvmistry. Transcribed and Edited by Joseph D. Zabinskit From an unpublished series of manuscripts held by the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. Section 8 "Of Pills" includes a sub-section headed "Pilulae de Duobus. Pills of two principal ingredients." Published online in 2007. Examined 4/28/2010. )

[38] Senna is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as "the dried leaflets of various species of Cassia, used as a cathartic and emetic."

[39] Carter should have written "clysters" rathen than "glysters." They are, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "a medicine injected into the rectum, to empty or cleanse the bowels, to afford nutrition, etc.; an injection, enema; sometimes, a suppository."

[40] Carter probably refers to laudanum which, the OED states, was "a name for various preparations in which opium was the main ingredient."

[41] Vitriol is "one or other of various native or artificial sulphates of metals . . . used in the arts or medicinally, esp. sulphate of iron," according to the Oxford English Dictionary .

[41.5] John Zuil was a merchant and was probably the ship's captain that Carter mentioned in his diary August 1, 1722, "Zuil Saild Gave me a Bottle Snuff." Carter recorded a diary note about him the following year as well: December 30, 1723, "mr Zuil & man came back" [from church]. In what British city Zuil lived is not clear, but it may have been Liverpool because city directories of 1767-1773 list a John Zuil as a merchant, first in Cable Street, and later, in King Street. This probably would have been a son of the man Carter knew, given the shorter lives at this period. ( "Yuil Family Newsletters," Issue #24 Fall. 1998http://www., 11/6/2009. )

[42] In 1732, James Whaley was the overseer at "Old Ordinary" and "Moon's Plantation."

[42.5] According to the Oxford English Dictionary Online, a hair bag was "A small silken pouch to contain the back-hair of a wig."

[42.6] This may have been Fortunus Sydnor who was named in the 1733 inventory of Carter's estate as the over seer at Frying Pan Quarter.

[42.7] "A gate or other contrivance by which the flow of water in a waterway is controlled; a flood-gate" ( Century Dictionary online at Wordnik at )

[42.8] Carter's Home Quarters included his holdings in Lancaster County, many of which had been obtained by his father, and most of which he had inherited from his older brother. "Corotoman lay at the southernmost point of these tracts on the north bank of Carter's Creek." (Sorrells. Landholders & Landholdings. p. 25. )

[42.9] A pinnace was "a small light vessel, generally two-masted, and schooner-rigged; often in attendance on a larger vessel as a tender, scout, etc." It could be rowed as well. ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[43] A butt was a "cask for wine or ale, of capacity varying from 108 to 140 gallons. . . . a measure of capacity = 2 hogsheads, i.e. usually in ale measure 108 gallons, in wine measure 126 gallons; but these standards were not always precisely adhered to." ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[43.5] William Jones (ca. 1650-1710) lived in Northumberland County. He and his wife, Margaret, sold a plantation to Carter in 1704, that lay probably in both Lancaster and Northumberland counties which Carter later referred to as "old plantation." This purchase is mentioned in Carter's will. (Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ." .)

[43.6] A croft means "a small agricultural holding worked by a peasant tenant." Apparently Carter had allowed his carpenters to have some areas for gardens, etc. ( Oxford English Dictionary Online )

[43.7] The bark of various species of the Cinchona tree, from which quinine is procured, formerly ground into powder and taken as a febrifuge [fever reducing agent]. ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[43.8] Henry Lawon (1696-1751) was a member of a prominent family whose ancestor had moved into Lancaster County about the same time as Robert Carter's father. Henry was a vestryman and justice (1731), and his daughter Elizabeth would marry Robert Biscoe. (See "The L:awson Family" in Brown and Sorrells. People in Profile. pp. 48, 71-84; McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 4[1721-1739]:236 ; and Ida J. Lee. Abstracts Lancaster County,Virginia, Wills. 1653-1800. (Greenville, SC: Southern Historical Press, Inc., 2004. Reprint of the original 1959 edition.) p. 139.

[43.9] "Applied in the Southern States of N. America, in the West Indies, etc., to small silver coins forming fractions of the Spanish dollar, or (when these are obsolete) to their value in current money. . . . In the eighteenth century the bit was generally the old Mexican real = of a dollar or about 6d. sterling; later values assigned are a half pistareen or of a dollar, of a dollar, and (in some colonies) the value of 1d. sterling." ( Oxford English Dictionary Online )

[43.95] Charles Jones was a long-time overseer for Carter at Hills Quarter in Lancaster County. Carter mentioned him in several diary entries in 1723 and 1724, wrote to him there in 1727, and he appears in Carter's will as the overseer on that property.

[43.96] Thomas Berry (1683-1743) of Northumberland Cunty would be tobacco inspector at Wicomocco in 1731 and 1732. An abstract of his 1743 will is online through the USGenWeb Project at (McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 4[1721-1739]:238, 286. )

[43.97] The glebe in an colonial Anglican parish was the land owned by the parish on which its minister lived. In the case of Lancaster County's two parishes, Christ Church and St. Mary's White Chapel. it consisted of some 839 acres lying about two and a half miles (longer by roads) northeast of "Corotoman." John Bell, the minister during Carter's lifetime, lived there. (Sorrells. Landholders & Landholdings. p. 11. )

[43.98] John Shaw was one of Carter's carpenters. Carter wrote in his diary on January 25, 1723, that he had signed articles with Shaw.

[43.99] A camel can mean a type of wooden float used as a fender. Perhaps Carter's workmen had one that was being used in the water near the dam work.

[44] A tumbrel as Carter uses the term means a farm cart capable of dumping its load.

[45] From the context, Child's Quarter may be part of Mangorite in Richmond County, but it has not been identified. It is not included in Carter's inventory.

[46] Quit rent was the term used for the payment due from the holder of land to the "lord of the manor," in this case, to the proprietors of the Northern Neck. Carter as the proprietor's agent collected these payments. No services were required of the landholder as had been true in mediaeval times.

[47] Not used..

[48] John Savage was a surveyor later (1734) to be employed by Lord Fairfax while attempting to establish the boundaries of the proprietary. (Harrison. Landmarks. . . . p. 619.)

[49] Bull Run is a branch of the Occoquan River, and today forms the boundary between Fairfax and Prince William counties.

[50] Carter's widowed daughter, Elizabeth (Carter) Burwell had married Dr. George Nicholas around the first of April, a marriage of which Carter apparently did not approve as he did not attend the ceremony. Apparently Carter and Nicholas were agreeing on terms of a marriage settlement.

[51] A moidore was a gold coin from Portugal or Brazil in use at Carter's time.

[51.5] Charles Grymes (c. 1692-1743) was the son of John Grymes of Middlesex County, but lived at "Morratico," Richmond County where he was sheriff in 1724 and 1725, burgess, etc. He was a member of the Council ( "The Grymes Family." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography . 28[1920]: 90-96, 187-94, 283-85, 374-75; McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 4[1721-1739]:66, 85; and Ryland. Richmond County Virginia. . . . pp. 500, 504, 514.

[52] William Downman was a justice of Richmond County from 1718, sheriff in 1722 and 1723, and a tobacco inspector in 1731 and 1732. (Ryland. Richmond County Virginia. . . . p. 504. and McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 4(1721-1739): 12, 34, 238, 286 )

[53] Carter refers to his son John, then secretary of state of the colony.

[54] Pantico was a farm in Westmoreland County where there is a stream of this name. George Byrd was its overseer in Carter's inventory in 1732, managing 22 slaves, 31 cattle, 18 hogs, and 3 horses. ("Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . .")

[55] Metcalfs was another farm in Westmoreland County. In 1732, John Ordra was the overseer of 5 slaves, 3 horses, 10 sheep, 40 hogs, and 47 cattle. The property descended to Robert Carter III. ("Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ." and Morton. Robert Robert Carter of Nomini Hall. p. 70.)

[56] Old House Quarter was located in Christ Church Parish, Lancaster County, and was inherited by Carter from his brother. It may refer to the original Carter settlement in the county. In Cater's 1733 inventory, George Conolly was the overseer there, managing 31 slaves, 116 sheep, 105 cattle, and "a horse calld Blackbird." ("Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ." ; Jones, John Carter II. . . . p. 55. ; and Jones, Orders Book Entries . . . Referring to "Robert Carter. . . ." pp. 140-141.)

[57] Thomas West was the overseer at Blough Point Quarter in Northumberland County when RC's inventory was prepared in 1732. ("Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . .")

[58] In his will, Carter refers to the old plantation "bought of Mr. Robert Jones" in Northumberland County. In his inventory, Dennis Sullivant was the property's overseer of 8 slaves, 36 sheep, 75 hogs, 66 cattle, and "a Mare called Mopsy 10 yers old," etc. The property was bequeathed to Carter's son Landon. ("Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ." ; and Greene. The Diary of Colonel Landon Carter. . . . p. 4.)

[59] Benjamin and Adam (d. 1726) Graves were the sons of Captain Thomas Graves, long a captain of vessels trading to Virginia, and a special friend of Carter's; they also commanded vessels in the trade.

[60] This probably was Henry Lawson (1675-1725) of Lancaster County although his son (1696-1752) of the same name lived in Lancaster as well. A Henry Lawson was listed with 7 titheables in St. Mary's White Chapel Parish in a Lancaster County census in 1716. ( ; and "Titheables in Lancaster Co., 1716." William and Mary Quarterly. 1st ser., 21 (July 1912): 106-112.)

[60.4] Thomas Newton was sheriff of Westmoreland County in 1723 and 1724. (McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 4[1721-1739]34, 67:. )

[60.5] Roger Oxford was the overseer at Norman's Ford.

[60.6] Townson Dade was sheriff of Stafford County in 1724 and 1725. (McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 4[1721-1739]:67, 85. )

[60.7] This probably was Francis (Frank) Awbrey (1690?-1741), an active land speculator in the area that became Loudoun County. He was one of the first justices when Prince William County was organized in 1731, and was sheriff of that county in 1739. (McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 4[1721-1739]:239, 439; and Harrison. Landmarks. . . . pp. 148, 150, 153-54 ff. )

[61] French Mason (1695-1748) was the son of George Mason II. (Copeland and MacMaster. The Five George Masons. . . . Genealogical Table 1 following p. 265.)

[61.5] Bartholomew Yates (1676-1734) was the minister, 1703-1734, of Christ Church Parish, Middlesex County. He was one of the visitors (trustees) of the College of William Mary where he also taught. ( William Meade, Bishop. Old Churches, Ministers and Families of Virginia. (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1900.) 2 vols. 1:359-361; and ( John K. Nelson. A Blessed Company: Parishes, Parsons, and Parishoners in Anglican Virginia, 1690-1776. [Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 2001]. p. 322. )

[61.6] Carter mentions a Captain Darracott in letters of 1720 and 1721 to Bristol mechant John King, and a Captain John Darracott's wife, Cecilia, died in 1737 and was buried at the home of her father, William Massie (Massey), of New Kent County. A John Darracott's will was probated in Hanover County (whose records have chiefly been lost) also in 1737. ( "Personal Notices From the Virginia Gazette." William and Mary Quarterly , 1st. ser., 5(April 1897): 242; "John Darracott of Hanover Co., Va. & his wives." Darracott Family Genealogy Forum on at examined 5/12/2010; Online index of Wills/Administration of the online catalog, Library of Virginia at examined 5/12/2010; and "Massie Family," ibid., William and Mary Quarterly ,1st. ser., 13(January 1905): 202-3. )

[61.7] Mary Colston, daughter of Francis and Mary [Bathhurst] Meriwether, was the widow of William Colston [d. 1701], the first clerk of Richmond County. (Ryland. Richmond County Virginia. . . . pp. 25-26. )

[62] This was a kiln used for the production of charcoal needed for blacksmith's and other work about Carter's farms. He mentions earlier that he had begun "woodcutting," and later (Dec. 15) that he paid the "collier," a tradesman who would have supervised the operation of the kiln.

[62.5] Tom Gumby was a trusted slave who oten ran errands for Carter.. Carter gives his complete name in his will, and mentions Tom's brother David. Philip D. Morgan believes he was a son of Old Gumby, another slave mentioned in the will. ( Philip D. Morgan. Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth Century Chesapeake and Low Country. [Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1998].pp. 334-5 )

[63] The office of secretary of state of the colony, formerly a perquisite of the colony's governors, had been purchased for John Carter by his father's working through Micajah Perry to influence the government in England. With a payment of £1500, "a patent under the great seal from the king" appointing John Carter to the post for life, was obtained. "The Secretaries business is to keep the public Records of the Country, and to take care that they be regularly and fairly made up; namely all Judgments of the General Court, as likewise all Deeds, and other Writings there proved; and further, to issue all Writs. . . . To make out and record all patents for Land. . . ." The office of the Secretary appointed all the clerks of the county courts and received fees from these officials as well as from those conducting business with his office. ( Louis B. Wright, ed. The History and Present State of Virginia By Robert Beverley. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Institute for Early American History and Culture, 1947. pp. 245-46. Morton. ed. The Present State of Virginia. . . by Hugh Jones. p. 187, fn. 75. Lettter from Robert Carter to Micajah Perry, 4 July 1723, Virginia Historical Society.)

[64] Henry Bell was the overseer at Pewmonds End plantation in the 1733 inventory of Carter's estate. (Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ." )

[65] Carter would refer later to the farm which Kelly oversaw as "Kelly's."

[66] Richard Haynes was master of one of Carter's sloops. (See Carter to Richard Meeks, 1729 June 30.)

[67] William Camp (Kemp) was described by Carter as "the General Overseer of Mr Burwell's Affairs" and he wrote that Camp earned a salary "£50 . . . for the year 1731." Carter and his son-in-law, Mann Page, were the trustees of Nathaniel Burwell's children after Burwell's death in 1721. Camp was a resident of Gloucester County where most of the Burwell estates lay, and he must also have supervised "Rippon Hall" in nearby York County. (Carter to George Braxton, 1729 November 20, and Carter to William Dawkins,1732 July 11. Virginia Tax Records. [Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, Inc., 1983.] p. 539. )

[68] This vessel was commanded by Captain Constantine Cant and may have been owned by William Dawkins and Micajah Perry as Carter reported her December 1723 arrival to each of them. ( Survey Report 6800 summarizing Adm. 68/194 and Survey Report 6801 summarizing Adm 68/195,, found in the microfilms of the Virginia Colonial Records Project, Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia. )

This text, originally posted about 2002, was revised between April 1 and June 14, 2010, to add footnotes, and to strengthen the modern language version text.