Robert King Carter's Correspondence and Diary

   A Collection Transcribed
        and Digitized
   by Edmund Berkeley, Jr.

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Electronic Text Center , University of Virginia Library


Robert Carter Diary, 1722

     Robert Carter records the work being done on his plantations, the prevailing winds and a hurricane, visitors he received including members of his family, trips to Williamsburg and the sums he spent while there, arrival of ships with goods from Britain, movement of tobacco from outlying farms on his sloops and its placement on ships bound for Britain, and details of his bouts with gout.

Robert Carter Diary, 1722

-folio 2 recto -

["Corotoman," Rappahannock River, Lancaster County, Virginia]

      [May] 1722

17 [. . .] Staggs ball I gave him 5 pistols
18 was the Concert I gave the Singer 15 Shillings & had given
her a Guinea before
19 I went to Merch [an] ts hundred found every [thing] in good Order.
20 & 21 was at my Daughter Burwells & Pages
22 went to Town left my Daughter Ann Ill of a Fever.
23 the 300£ to Colonel Byrd had the Concurrence
of the Council
24 & 25 spent in reading Bills & other Assembly business
26 I was appointed of the Commitee to join some of the
Burg [esses] to pre [par] e a [n] Address to the Governor that he would
[be] present at the treaty with the 5 Nations [. . .]
The same day I came over Yor [k River I gave]
Holloways Coachman 2 English Shilling
27 came home gave Colonel [Mann] Pages Coachman
2 English Shillings came
from Colonel Pages
to Machins on their horses gave 2 English [shillings]
to Oliver
found Letters from the falls & Nomini
brot me [news] of the death of 3 Negroes
I came home in Graves boat.
28 my Sloop goes for Wiccocomoco 29 I drew the Paper about the Merchants [ . . . ]
I wrote 6 Letters for England to go by the T [ . . . ]
man none to Perry nor my Son
-- --
30 I go for York a Season this day yesterday I was
at the hills Changlins & Wolf house [Buc]
kles we have finished & shall do at these
home Plantation our Planting abundance
of Plants at every place --

[Carter did not make entries for the next ten days.]

June 9th I bought of mr Austin Moore 25 new Negros 5 women 15 men
5 Girls I am to pay 20£ per head for the men
women 10£ per head for the Girls 4 [?] of the Girls I
gave to 4 of my grandChildren Iris to [Carter ?]
Lettice to Judith Burwell , Sarah [to]
Mann Page Phillis to Elizabeth Page under c [er]
tain conditions in case of the grandchild's dea [th]
[finished ?] my Letters [ . . . ]

-folio 2 verso -

June 13 1722

I gave away the following sums
To the Governor's servants a pistol -- 1: 1.10
To my daughter Page nurse 1: 1: 9
B [urwell] s Coachman -- 10: 0
To William Martin -- -- 5: --
I changed 1/2 a Pistol wth Bocock
I gave to Stagg's People 10" --
To the Servants at the Ordinarys 2" 6
To Oliver at Colonel Berkleys 2" 6
To mr Holloways Coachman " --

-- --
Colonel Jenings promised me 660£ Colonel Page
&c bills for the Propr [ietors] [hereafter]
75£ my own Interest by bills from said Perso [n] s
[ . . . ] ne interest of my money & to pay me
[ . . . ] my Quitrents hereafter
Colonel Ludwell Colonel Page Colonel Corbin have paid
me their Quitrents for 1721
-- --
[I l] ent mrs Seaton 4 Pistols all this Gold
[c] ame out of the Gold I had of Doctor Blair
[14] My Sloop came home brought 65 hogsheads
15 I got home found a Letter from King
with extraordinary News.
I had 4 Guineas of mr John Grymes
-- --
16 Captain Graves Captain Bradby came here
23 st Captain Bradby sent my Sloop home Thursday
26 about [2 ?] Clock my sloop Set out for the falls
Carried 8 Negros 6 men 2 wom
[T] he other sloop went for Potoma the
26 Captain Russel came here informs
me the South Branch of the little fork
above Normans ford is the biggest
Branch & that many Surveys are
made there by the Kings Surveyor
Russel bring me a
Lettr from mr Hagar
the German Minister dated 23 June 1722
July 15 I gave a Note to John Rhodes for fifty bushels Corn
mr Wormeley had ten barrels of Corn from the [ . . . ]

-folio 3 recto -

July 20 1722
I let Dan Dunaway have a barrel of Corn from
the Hills on mr Wormleys Note
July 28 the Carter & Uverilla began their Voyage
29 they turnd down the river 30th went out of the river
30th Bradby in sight
I paid Bradby 25 English Shillings for a Covering for
my sloop
I paid Captain Graves 7/6 for his Buckles & 18 for
the Ball [an] ce of his Accot
30 B Harrison from Tuesday last he offered
me the sight of his Mother &c on Saturday
I refused to receive them then on monday I
read sent them back for Ackt &c
August 1 Zuil Sailed gave me a Bottle Snuff.
2 I go to Colonel Balls to meet Stagg
I sent to mr Wormeley a gross Cider in my own boat when
Stagg was here before by Captain Graves longb [oa] t
I sent him 3 gross more of Bottles.
Girl Sarah died of a strange distemper at Hills
Jo Gregory from the falls came home Potomac
26th July brought 30 hogsheads Tobo from Captain Hooper
six hogsheads from Washinton Parish 3 from
Meeks 15 from Turberbille 2 from Knight
his Rent 2 out of North [umberlan] d in all 58 hogsheads .
Josh Odar came from the falls of our river into the
Creek wednesday the 25 July brought 26 hogsheads from
Normans ford & Mountain 5 from Major
Denwiddy 4 hogsheads from Major Smith 2 hogsheads
from Colonel Tarpley I prized the 2 Crops into
16 hogsheads had the [m] in the Averilla in 2 days
Friday Night they went off .
for the Potomac Trip I had 3 men from
Bradby 1 man from the Carter I gave each of
them 4 Gallons brandy
To the Carpenter of the Carter 5 1/2 gallons --
To Graves 5 barrels Corn 3 Shoats 1 more for
my boys Schoolmaster some bacon Cordial water
to Bradby 3 barrels Corn 2 hogs & in other
respects much the same as to Graves Brad
by gave me six quarts Port six Pints Canary

-folio 3 verso -

August 2d 1722
Puts Into the Cellar 10 dozen & 2 bottles Weymouth
Beer pieces & all
-- --
This day a great Discovery made of Catherines
6. Charles the Coachman goes to Mill for Indian [corn]
Thomas Carter had a Note from me the Miller to
grind his Corn for him & let him not come away
-- --
William Sydnor goes to fetching Stakes over the Creek
-- --
I sent mrs Chichester 2 bottles Madeira wine.
-- --
10th my Sloop went to the falls carried Doctor Bells
things with him carried Husts things
11th after Night mr Harrisons man came here being
Saturday Night Monday I had Compa [ny] all day
Tuesday morning I dispatched him sent two Lettrs
by him one to mrs Harrison one to her Son
I would not meddle with her great Packet
her man kept It all the While he was here
& carried it back again to her
15 I & my Children went to mr. Steptoes' my home
Orchard was then Enclosed we began to make
Cider made 3 Coolers and a half, my Mill Gudg
eon was broke & brought home I was at the mill
William Morris Cut the Shaft
16 the Smith Made the Mill Gudgeon & hoop
I was at Captain Smith came home at midnight
we made two Butts of Cider & filled up the 1st
Cask I received at mr Steptoes Captain [Daniel] McCartys Lettr
with seven Shillings in it his Nort [humberlan] d Rent
I left wth mr Steptoe six Tobo knives for Thomas West .
17th made three great Butts of Cider
18 made 3 great Butts of Cider gave Price a Note
for 3 bushels of Meal was at all my home Quarters
20 I answered Captain McCartys Letter sent him
2 Warrants made 3 great Butts Cider ordered toby [ . . . ]
Pursel Corn at Thomas Wests
21 last Night I was very uneasy took a dose
of Cream of tartar It worked very well
we make 3 Butts Cider this day
22 was clear of the Pain & Opression at my Stomach
wch troubled me before I took the Physic slept all
the night thro
George had a Feaver last Night took bark this morng
Amy Cosby h [ad] a fit

-folio 4 recto -

August 22th 1722
made 3 Butts Cider Stag & mr Balls
Family here rainy & Windy in the Evening
I was at Jacksons Coopers & the brick house
Ordered Jackson 1 1/2 Corn at Coopers per week
Will Waugh from the same place 3 Bushels
per week.
23th wind at SE blows fresh cloudy made
3 Butts Cider
24 much the same weather mr Stagg could not
get away W [ind] SE blows fresh we mix all
sorts of Apples
25 calm hot funky cloudy weather W [ind] E we made
21 Coolers of Cider Laid down the Gutter Leads
on the E [ast] end of front
of the building & Shmgd [sic ]
26 Sunday W [ind] NE very cloudy & hot rained
in the afternoon Thundered much
27 a fair morning W [ind] at W, very hot we
made 21 Coolers of Cider
28 a fair morning W [ind] Westerly mighty
dews both today & yesterday
My Sloop came from the falls we made
21 Coolers of Cider this day MadGas [ca] r Jack brought home
This Evening Sawney came here in the sloop Colonel Page
sent me my Letters came into York on Satur
day last the 25th Instant
29th I wrote to Colonel [Mann] Page & my daughter Burwell
made 5 1/2 coolers of Cider & Conclude that work
for the Present began getting of keeping
Apples yesterday
30th Picked Apples to keep Got my Walnuts
31 got Walnuts Beat my Apples off the Trees
1 September Got walnuts beat Apples off the
Trees Sawyers Beat Apples at the Trough
Odar went away to the falls in the Night the
30th of August Charles Caught up 2 young hor
ses one my own the other mrs [Mary] Swans
mr Harrison came here 1st September brings a L [ette] r
from his mothers Deed
September 2 William Martin & Richard Harison brings me
receipts from the two Carters for 800 460,771
amounting to 1971 lbs Tobacco on Accot of said Harrison debt

-folio 4 verso -

September 3d 1722
I gave a Note to Johnson's Overseer for 2 barrels Corn
at the hills & 1 1/2 Bushels Salt he had here
we boiled 5 Coppers Cider after it was dark W [ind] flew
about from SW to NW Changed the Air
4th a cool morning the tailor had of me 12 ells
of Ozna [burg] for 4 large Shirts 3 yards of W [hi] t [e] ditto
for lining Cha [rles's] Jacket & Breeches I prepare
for Midd [lese] x. we boil Cider again 5 Coppers
met wth 7 protest paid by mr Perry To Sitwell 70
odd Pounds an Accot Sales my remaining
4 hogsheads per Wharton 3 Letters from Perry one
from Colonel Byrd John Seager promised to give
me Security for his debt next Court I came
home in the Night W [ind] fresh at NW
5 a cool morning, we boiled 7 Coppers of cider
6 a Cool morning & cloudy Charles Fallin
paid me some quit rent money Sterling £2"13"6
6 mrs B [enjamin] H [arrison] went away we boiled 5 Coppers cider
I sent mr Machin an ounce bark 2 bottles wine
Amy Cosby went away without saying
any thing I had some words with her
7 My Sawyers were abou t sawing some
white oak Plank I gave them a new line
W Sydnor came home after I went to
bed last Night had been since Wednes
day morning 4th of the month
Robin & Manuel helps the Gardeners
We finish putting by boiled Cider
Jo Gregory had Six paid Bacon
8 Amy Cosby came again last Night pretends
she only went to See her Cousin Gilbert af
ter his marriage Robin and Manuel
still with the gardener.
10th Amy Cosby went over the river with my
Coachman the plumber finished his
work on Saturday the 8th of the month
11th I paid the plumber in Gold 8"13 Shillings out of the
gold I had of James Carter & a pistol of the same
weighing 20 shillings with 2 pence overpaid him
12th I was at our Court Obtained an Order for cutting
off Madagascar Jacks Toes Captain Eskridge
[The last line at the bottom of page is illegible.]

-folio 5 recto -

September 13 1722
Captain Eskridge stayed here a day I gave
him a Commission to be Deputy Esch [eater]
I sent a Demand by him of my Rent
to sevl [sic] Persons I sent Meeks a Copy of
the Tobo Law I delivd [sic] him Eskridge 4 Protests
as by his Rect in the Evening my
Daughter & Children came home.
14 Captn Eskridge went away 12 of Clock
Docto [r] Mann Cutt [sic] of mad [agasca] r fellows Toes.
mr Wormeley came here.
18 I go to York I carry 1 gui [nea] 2 1/2 d [itt] o 12/6 Cash
went that night to Colonel Page in mr Wormeleys
Chariot & six next day dined with Colonel Page
19 went to mrs Burwell lay at mrs Burwells past
our bills to mr Wormeley for 300£ on mr Perry
to Interest according the Will of N [athaniel] B [urwell]
20 in the morning went to tobo house gave Orders
to throw away all manner Trash to lay Straight
without tying up. went to the race won a gui [nea]
of Captain Jones.
21 came to mr Wormeleys & so home Amy Cosby
came home brought things from mrs Burwell for
my daughter Anne
22 Calm & hot Colonel Page taken wth the Gout while I was th [e] r [e]
received Papers of Colonel Lewis about the Escheators Office
prized out my Grapes had 3 large Tubs of picked grap [es]
I brought from mrs Burwels 4 pounds of Coffee beside Canister
I made 103 gallons of wine
24. I scour the remaindr of Virg [ini] a Cloth being 2
pieces 500 Yards scoured in my absences
25 My People Cleans my Wheat Coachman
goes away wth RB Shoes is to bring home
my hogshead of Shoes Biscoe prepares Cloths for
the falls & Pewmonds End I drew of my Ma
dera Wine fill 23 dozen Bottles & 8 more
Nassau goes to Captain Carters for my Trunk of plate
I wrote 2 Le [tte] res to Dawkins & Pemberton --
Saturday last W Sydnor gave me Accot of 673
foot of 1 1/2 Inch white Oak Plan [k . . . ] n Sawed
26 Colonel Jenings Summons dated the [ . . . ] came to me this
morning at 8 Clock the Governor Colonel [Drys] dale arrived at
Kecoughtan the 22 got Williamsburg [25th?] ordered the Council
the 27th. The Commissary [wrote] to me likewise [to let?]
me kn [ow . . . ] my Sons Commission for the Secr [etary's office]

-folio 5 verso -

September 28th 1722 about 11 Clock Went away with my Letters to
Colonel Page & mr Commissary William Sydnor
mr Robert Tucker sent me a Letter from Captain Hyde
16th July. lays aside the 1/2 per Cent & Freight
29 4 dozen & two bottles Rack now in the house
October 1 William Sydnor returned Yesterday morn before day
brot three Letters from my Son 2 from the Comm [issar] y
& Colonel Page my Sons Commission published the
27th. when the Governor's was
2d I sent the License to Majo [r] Fleet
4 dozen & 4 bottles White wine in my Cellar.
a great deal Haut bryon
a great deal of old Southham
-- --
3 Came mr Grimes , mr Armistead Colonel Page
My daughter Ann married to mr Benjamin
by mr Bell Our minister
6 Southern Compa [ny] went away
7th Stagg & the music went away
I gave to Langford 5 Guineas to mr Stags [sic]
man 2 Guineas
Captain Smith his wife mr Steptoe his wife
Captain Pinkard mr Edwards was here Captain
Jones & his wife mr Eustace & his wife
I Invited but they did not come.
8th Newgent & Burk came here I began
to clothe my people
I gave to my daughter Harrison 6 Guineas
& 3 moidores received of my Daughter besides
2 doubloons 1 moidore 1 fre [nch] guinea 3 fre [nch] pistoles
2 fre [nch] pieces more 1 Span [ish] pistole 2 Arabians
1 Jacobus 1 1/2 ditt [o] 1 bro [ken] piece more a Twist of
Gold. 12 rings in a box several sorts 1 ditto I gave
to my Daughter, 1 I put on another mourning
ring I put on
10th I put a mixture of fre [nch] brandy & the bottom of a sugar Cask
6 quarts brand [y] of the sugar about 3 quarts into my biggest cask of
my no [ . . . ] it being a hogshead into my 25 gallon Cask I put
1 quarts fre [nch] brandy . . . ] sugar
I [go to T] own wth me 8.2.6 from mr Carter
[ . . . ] 61 guineas in my Pocket
[ . . . ] Harrison 5£ Cash

-folio 6 recto -

October 13 1722
I went to mrs Burwell's mr Harrison & my Daug
hter with me dined At Colonel Page on Sunday lay at
mrs Burwells that night got into Town betimes
on monday 15 waited upon the governor went to the Coun [cil]
with him
19 Friday Court Sat in the morning adjourned me [t]
Colonel Spotswood out of Town Governor & Council & a
great many Gentlemen some in Coaches some on
horses Colonel Jenings & I dined with the Governor
I paid 3"15 Shillings to mr Chiswell a debt from Major
Burwells Estate wch is owing to me
I gave away at Colonel Pages 10 Shillings to mr Holloway
Coachmen 10 Shillings to mr Burwells Coachman 7.6
to mr Berkeley's People 7/6 for bringing my
things from Seatons ferry to the Governor's People
26/6 to the Ordinarys tenders 5 Shillings to mr Stagg's
People 10 Shillings
November 6 at Night I got home found all well only
Phil & John Harvey
mr Turbervile had 2 bushels of my new whe [a] t
7 Rachel went to my Daughter Burwells
I sent my Letters to go by Cobb to the burnt house
8 Young was fitted with Cloths &c for his Gang
carried to Richard Meeks 4 new New Negroes
two men two women also Madagascar Jack
2 Negros dead at Nomini Billy at Marshl
Doll at Meeks I wrote to Captain s Turbervile
Eskridge . By John Sage I wrote Johnson --
9th. Henry Bell came here
13 mr Chichester had an Abridgement of the Virginia Laws
for wch he is to pay 5 Shillings Sterling
15 gave a Note to Ruth Wood on William Waugh
for five Yards of Virginia Cloth on Accot of
4 dozen Chickens at 2/6 is 12/6 she
owes me 6 [more]
17 Charles Jones had 5 1/4 1/2 Virginia Tole Cloth
mr Turbervile had a gallon 1 pint fre [nch] brandy
Coachman had a pair plains & bed Cord
Peter brought the things & the People for
mr Burwells Quarter carries a dozen long
irish stockings a Cask Vinegar
19 mr Eustace was with me for 1/2 an Acre of land
to build a Mill on against his Cabin neck point
I told him no Answer would give him
I was not Accustomed either to give or selling
land. & much other discourse past about this

-folio 6 verso -

November 20th 1722
Delivered to mr Edward Seager's Protest for
21 My Sloop sent out for the falls carries 3 Negroes
to mr Burwell's Quarter &ca
Nassau this Night told me he had Carted to
the Landing 26 Load [s] of wood.
6 1/2 lb white Sugar to Amy Cosby
2 pint bottles Canary to mr Burgess.
This morning Bisco told me a sad Story of
Pris & B, I then first heard A [nn] V [itty] was wth Child
I left a Protest wth Colonel Page for 33£ odd money
Captain Eskridge had several Protest [s] of me at Town
Captain Carter had several of me before I went to Town
Captain Cobb sailed 19th November small wind but fair
22 I begin to fetch wood home in my flat [boat] the Gar [diner]
& others my boats Gang.
This day drew 8 bottles brand [y] Amy had 2
bottles Bisco one 5 put into my closet.
Yesterday mr Grimes sent me 2d & 3d bills for
my Sons Solicitors Salary
26, Billy was whipped & branded
27 Robert Singleton paid me 36 Shillings Sterling for
Quit Rents of six hundred Acres Land he hold [s]
in Stafford due 29 September last
December 1 Captain Stretton arrived 3d I got my Goods
I bot a pirogue 10 Shillings Cash 25 Shillings Goods.
3d measured at the Hills 82 1/2 Corn hogsheads
In November about 25 at Changlins 64 hogsheads Corn
-- --
4 begun digging brick at the Church Earth
last night Daniel Carter brought home the
List of my Negro Children & their Ages
Taken by him & William Waugh
5 Charles goes to Mill.
Yesterday brought Corn from Indian Town
four hogsheads went to mr Bells mr Harrison
my Daughter Ann with me.
I began Jacksons Mill 21 st November
5 I had George Money yesterday 1/2 Guinea 5 Shillings
I agreed with Henry Shelton
I let William Hutchins have 10 Shillings paid his & Med
dicines ferriages over Piankatank
17 my Sloop came from the falls brought 4 beeves 8 hogsheads
Corn 10 hogsheads Wheat 3 Tubs 3 Pails Butter 96 pounds tallow
Belladin fetched 6 hogsheads Corn Tobo James Carter
was here mr Booth was here.

-folio 7 recto -

December 1722
18 Charles went to mill for 6 Bushels English
6 bushels indian [corn] I brewed 3 Cask [s] cider wth
brandy & sugar
I began the frame for my Stable at the Church
16th of this month
A perticular Accot of things brought from the falls in
my Sloop 17th Decemr

beeves Wheat butter       tallow
Richl [an] d 1 -- 46 bushels 2 Tubs 1 bucket 1 pigin       21 3/4 lb
Halls 2 -- 26 -- --       50 1/2
Park -- 55 -- 2 buckets -- --        --
Poplar 1 beef 70 ditto 1 tub -- --       24
              -- -- --              
              197 bushels              
Hinsons        wheat came before 1 Bucket --
Pewmond's End 4 hogsheads Indian Corn v              
Mangorite 4 ditto                     

19 mr Meeks came here
-- -- --
                     lbs Quarters Oz
26 gave out some sugar wt canister 1 -- 3 -- 1
              Weights 6 -- 0 -- 0
Brown sugar        Stone -- 5 -- 3 -- 0
              weight agst --        2 -- 2
              whole weight 11 -- 1 --       
              Net sugar 9 -- 3 -- 1

Thomas Austins Accot of brandy
last May 3 3 Cask     140
                                      5 in a Carboy
                                  335 gallons


Source copy consulted: Robert Carter Diary, 1722-1727, Robert Carter Papers, Acc. No. 3807, Albert H. Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia. Charlottesville. The first of the folios of the diary is a fragment of such small size that transcription of it seems pointless. Mentioned on the verso of it are: Joseph Gregory, Mr. Edwards, Col. Tarpley, and Wm. Stanardson, and a trip to York.

[1] This may refer to Charles Stagg (d. c. 1735), the manager of the first theatre in Williamsburg, and a dancing master.

[2] A pistole was a Spanish gold coin in use in Carter's time.

[3] This number not used.

[4] Williamsburg

[5] Anne Carter (1702-c. 1743) was to marry in 1722 Benjamin Harrison IV of "Berkeley," Charles City County.

[6] Carter refers to the decision of the Assembly to send an "embassy to negotiate with the Five Nations [of Indians] at Albany," and that Governor Spotswood lead the delegation. (Dodson. Alexander Spotswood, 267-268. )

[7] A ferry across the Rappahannock from Lancaster County was located at this Middlesex County property, probably owned by Thomas Machen who appears in the records of Christ Church Parish, Middlesex, in 1725. It was a short distance from Machens across the county to another ferry located at Seatons in Gloucester County on the south bank of the Piankatank River. Carter regularly took this route to Williamsburg. ( Churchill Gibson Chamberlayne, editor. The Vestry Book of Christ Church Parish Middlesex County, Virginia 1663-1767. [Richmond: Old Dominion Press, 1927] p. 202. )

[7.1] Benjamin Graves was the son of Captain Thomas Graves (d. ante 1720), long a captain of vessels trading to Virginia, and a special friend of Carter. Benjamin also commanded vessels in the trade, especially the Carter. ( Adm. 68/194-196, ff. 33r, found in the microfilms of the Virginia Colonial Records Project, Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia. )

[8] "Buckles," or "Corotoman," was a property very close to Carter 's home, also called "Corotoman." But this property was under the direction of an overseer named John Buckles, and Carter frequently refers to it as "Buckles."

[9] Augustine Moore (c. 1685-c.1734) of "Chelsea," King William County, a justice and prominent leader. ( J.H.P., "The Gorsuch and Lovelace Families," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. 25(1917): 431-444. )

[10] Carter Burwell (1716-1756) was Robert Carter's grandson by his daughter Elizabeth (Carter) Burwell and her first husband, Nathaniel Burwell (1680-1721). Carter Burwell would live at "Carter's Grove," and would marry Lucy Grymes in 1738. (Carleton. A Genealogy. . . of Robert Carter. . . . p. 128. )

[10.1] Judith Burwell (b & d 1722) was Carter's short-lived grandaughter by his daughter, Elizabeth, and her first husband, Nathaniel Burwell; she was their sixth child. (Carleton. A Genealogy. . . of Robert Carter. . . . p. 143. )

[10.2] Mann Page (1718-1778) was Robert Carter's grandson by his daughter Judith (Carter) Page and her husband Mann Page (1691-1730). He would inherit "Rosewell," Gloucester County, from his father, and marry first Alice Grymes (1724-1746) in 1743, and in 1748, Ann Corbin Tayloe. (Carleton. A Genealogy. . . of Robert Carter. . . . p. 212. )

[10.21] Little evidence of Elizabeth Page's apparently short life can be found today. Carter noted on June 13, 1722, that he had paid (while away from home) "To my daughter Page Nurse 1: 1: 9." This was very likely a "wet nurse" for the newborn granddaughter.

[10.3] Alexander Spotswood (1646-1740) had been the lieutenant governor from 1710 and would be succeeded in September 1722 by Hugh S\Drysdale. He would remain in the colony after his term.

[10.4] This was Charles Stagg (d. c. 1735), the manager of the first theatre in Williamsburg, and a dancing master. He and his wife Mary had come to Virginia about 1715 and were indentured to merchant William Levingston to teach dancing. Levingston entered a contract with them the next year that they would attempt to obtain a license for "the sole provilege of Acting Comedies, Drolls or other kind of Stage Plays within any part of the sd colony not only for the three years next ensueing the date hereof but for as much longer time." ( "Williamsburg" in The Concise Oxford Companion to the Theatre online at http://www. 11/5/2009. The contact cited on the website was found in York County Records, Orders, Wills, etc,. Book XV, 53. )

[10.5] Quit rent was the term used for the payment due from the holder of land to the "lord of the manor," in this case, to the proprietors of the Northern Neck. Carter as the proprietor's agent, collected these payments. No services were required of the landholder as had been true in mediaeval times.

[11] There was a ferry over the Piankatank River near Berkeley Island operated by Bailey Seaton that Carter often refers to when describing trips to Williamsburg. The Seaton property is noted on the Fry-Jefferson map as on the Piankatank in Gloucester County.

[12] Captain James Bradby commanded the Micajah and Philip . ( P.R.O., Adm. 68/195, ff. 74v, found in the microfilms of the Virginia Colonial Records Project, Albert H. Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia. )

[13] William Russell (1680?-1741) was a well-known ranger and explorer who eventually settled in Prince William County (later Fauquier). Fairfax Harrison thinks he may have been one of the rangers who accompanied Spotswood's Knights of the Golden Horseshoe. (Harrison, Landmarks . . . , 204. )

[14] The Fry-Jefferson map shows the Little Fork as a tributary of the Hedgman (now the Rappahannock) River. It lies in what is probably Culpeper County today, not far from the Blue Ridge.

[15] Henry Hager (c. 1644-1738) was a "pastor of their own Evangelical Reformed Faith" who came to Virginia with the Siegenian German miners in the spring of 1714, and moved with them to Germanna, and later to Germantown. ( "Germantown," in F. Harrison, "Landmarks..." , 207-221 )

[16] Governor Alexander Spotswood had encouraged immigration of Germans into Virginia in 1714, and they settled "in what was then Stafford Co. . . .. later Prince William and now Fauquier." The men worked in Spotswood's iron mines, but around 1718 took grants in the proprietary in what was then Stafford County. (See "Germantown" in Harrison. Landmarks. . . . pp. 207-221. and Elizabeth Chapman Denny Vann and Margaret Collins Denny Dixon. Virginia's First German Colony. Richmond: Privately printed, 1961. p. 33.)

[16.5] John Wormeley (1689-1727), a younger son of Ralph Wormeley (d. 1701) for whom Carter had been a trustee in John's youth. When his older brother, Ralph, died in 1714, John inherited all of their father's considerable estate in Middlesex and York counties. He married Elizabeth Tayloe and had six children. (See "Letters Concerning The Estate Of Ralph Wormeley" in the opening page of this web site ; and Edmund Jennings Lee, Lee of Virginia 1642-1892. [Heritage Books, 2008 reprint found on Google Books, 9/10/2009], 147. )

[17] Benjamin Harrison IV (1695-1745), builder of "Berkeley," Charles City County, a prominent citizen and frequently a burgess, married Carter 's daughter a few months later. ( "Harrison of James River," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. 32(1924): 97 )

[17.5] John Zuil was a merchant and was probably the ship's captain that Carter mentioned in his diary 1722 August 1, "Zuil Saild Gave me a Bottle Snuff." Carter recorded a diary note about him the following year as well: 1723 December 30 "mr Zuil & man came back" [from church]. In what British city Zuil lived is not clear, but it may have been Liverpool because city directories of 1767-1773 list a John Zuil as a merchant, first in Cable Street, and later, in King Street. This probably would have been a son of the man Carter knew, given the shorter lives at this period. ( "Yuil Family Newsletters," Issue #24 Fall. 1998 at, 11/6/2009. )

[18] William Ball (1686-1745) of "Millenbeck," Lancaster County, not far from "Corotoman," was a close friend of Carter 's, a justice, burgess, and wealthy and powerful man. ( Nina Tracy Mann, "William Ball of Millenbeck," "Northern Neck of Virginia Historical Magazine," 25(Dec. 1975):2773-2779. )

[19] Thomas Hooper was appointed sheriff of Stafford County in 1719. (McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 4[1721-1739]:xl. )

[20] Washington Parish was one of two in Westmoreland County.

[21] This note eliminated.

[22] John Tarpley (1661-ca. 1739) was sheriff and a justice of the peace in Richmond County ( "Captain John Tarpley I Family," at, 11/11/2009 )

[23] Several of Carter's sons were at school in England at this time.

[24] This probably was Catherine Garrett who acknowledged an indenture to Carter for two years' service on August 8, 1722, in Lancaster County Court. (Jones, Orders Book Entries . . . Referring to "Robert Carter." p. 56. )

[24.5] This mill, sometimes referred to by Carter as the small or little mill, was located in Lancaster County and may have been the one "on the head of the Eastern branch of Corotoman" purchased by Carter's brother from Thomas and Elizabeth Haynes January 4, 1670. The property included about forty acres. (Jones, John Carter II. . . . p. 73. )

[25] Dr. John Bell was the minister of Christ Church Parish, Lancaster County.

[26] Elizabeth (Burwell) Harrison (d. 1734), wife of Benjamin Harrison III of Charles City County.

[27] Captain John Steptoe lived on land that later (about 1778) would be known as Kilmarnock in Lancaster County. ( B. Brainard Edmonds, "Kilmarnock." [Kilmarnock, Va.: Little Pebble Press, 1976] 6. )

[27.4] It is not clear what Carter meant by "cooler" but it must have been some sort of storage vessel in which the cider could have been kept. Neither the internet nor the Oxford English Dictionary provided a definition.

[27.5] According to the Oxford English Dictionary in machinery, as a mill, the gudgeon is "the part of a shaft or axle which rests on the bearings."

[27.6] A butt was "A cask for wine or ale, of capacity varying from 108 to 140 gallons." ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[28] Thomas West was the overseer at Blough Point Quarter in Northumberland County when Carter 's inventory was prepared in 1732. ("Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ." )

[28.5] Tobias Purcell purchased 150 acres in Lancaster County on the Corotoman River from Martha Norris on February 5, 1689, and Robert Carter bought the tract from him in 1696. The land would be a portion of that guaranteed to Betty (Landon) Carter in the jointure agreement signed before her marriage to Robert Carter in 1701.( Gertrude Entz Gray. Virginia Northern Neck Land Grants, Volume 1, 1694 -- 1742. [Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1987] p. 87. Google Books, 8/11/2011; )

[28.6] "Bitartrate of potash (acid potassium tartrate), present in grape juice, deposited in a crude form in the process of fermentation, and adhering to the sides of wine-casks in the form of a hard crust, also called argal or argol, which in the crude state varies from pale pink to dark red, but when purified forms white crystals, which are cream of tartar . . . emetic tartar, common name in pharmacy of potassio-antimonious tartrate . . . a poisonous substance, used in medicine to excite vomiting. ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[28.7] The bark of various species of the Cinchona tree, from which quinine is procured, formerly ground into powder and taken as a febrifuge [fever reducing agent]. ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[29] Amy Cosby seems to have been an important house servant, probably the housekeeper for Carter , then a widower, and is mentioned a number of times in the diary.

[30] Carter refers here to two of his farms by the names of their respective overseers.

[31] Brick House Quarter was located in Lancaster County and was a "collection of parcels acquired before 1732 from various owners"; in the 1732 inventory, there were 20 slaves, 63 sheep, 45 hogs, and 46 cattle on the place. (Sorrells. title>Landholders & Landholdings. p. 23; and "Carter Papers: An Inventory.. . ." )

[32] Madagascar Jack was a slave who "hath for some time past Lain & hid and lurked in swamps and Woods & other obscure places both here and in Maryland killing hogs and Committing other Injurys to his Majestys good Subjects." Carter obtained permission from the Lancaster County Court on September 12, 1722, "to Cut off all his toes on one of the sd negroes feet in order to the reclaiming him & Terrifying others from the like practice." (Jones, Orders Book Entries . . . Referring to "Robert Carter." p.59. )

[33] Mrs. Swan was Carter 's sister-in-law; she died in 1722.

[34] Osnaburg is a coarse fabric named for the region of Germany in which it was first produced. It was commonly used for sacking and bagging.

[34.5] Wharton was Captain John Wharton of the 80 ton Loyal Margaret. ( Survey Report 6800 abstracting Adm. 68/194, found in the microfilms of the Virginia Colonial Records Project, Shirley and Albert Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia. )

[35] Carter had been among the trustees for the young sons, Ralph (ca. 1681-1714) and John (1689-1727), of Ralph Wormeley after their father's death.

[36] At this time, a chariot was a light, four-wheeled open carriage.

[37] John Lewis (1669-1725) of "Warner Hall," Gloucester County, had been a member of the Council since 1704. ( Louis B. Wright and Marion Tinling, William Byrd of Virginia: The London Diary 1717-1721 and Other Writings. [New York: Oxford University Pres, 1958]. p. 458 )

[37.5] Canary is "a light sweet wine from the Canary Islands.". ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[38] Robert Biscoe (1699-1748) was born in London and educated at Christ's Hospital school. He became one one of Carter's clerks about 1716, writing letters and keeping accounts for the busines. He completed his indenture in 1724, prospered modestly as a merchant and farmer, married Elizabeth Lawson, and in 1743, wrote a book, The Mechant's Magazine; or Factor's Guide. (See the lengthy sketch of Biscoe in Brown and Sorrells. People in Profile. pp. 45-56.

[39] Kecoughtan was the old name for the area later known as Elizabeth City; it is where the city of Hampton lies today.

[39] Henry Fleet (d. 1735) was the third member of a distinguished Lancaster County family to bear this name, and was justice, sheriff in 1729-1730, coroner, surveyor of roads, and militia officer. ("Rebecca Banton Mysterious Woman of Wealth" in Brown and Sorrells. People in Profile, pp. 129-30. )

[39.2] According to the Oxford English Dictionary, haut brion is a type of fine claret.

[39.3] Southam was an ale.

[40] Alexander Spotswood was the former governor. (Raimo. Directory of American Colonial . . . Governors 1607-1789. )


[41] A moidore was a gold coin from Portugal or Brazil in use in Carter's time.

[41.5] A doubloon was a coin used in Spanish America in Carter's time worth 16 pieces of eight.

[41.6] "The current (but not official) name of an English gold coin, struck in the reign of James I. Originally issued in 1603, under the name of the Sovereign, and current for 20s[hillings]." ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[41.7] Carter had a clerk named John Harvey, and there are notes on some of his letters, "Harvey to copy." A John Harvey witnessed his will, and some of its codicils, which is logical if Harvey had written it out for Carter. However, on 1729 November 14, Carter wrote to Micajah Perry that Harvey, "whom you sent me from the Hospital," had completed his service, indicated that he did not trust Harvey, and intimated that Harvey may have stolen some accounts of the Burwell estate of which he requested copies from Perry.

[41.8] A Captain John Cobb commanded the Willis , a ship of 300 tons with 20 men, in 1727-28. The ship was owned by merchants Haswell and Brooks which may have been a London firm. ( Survey Report 6801 on Adm. 68/194-5, ff. 4r, Virginia Colonial Records Project, Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia. )

[42] Burnt House was a farm in Richmond County, "apparently in the vicinity of Cat Point Bridge. (Miller. Place-Names. . . . , 19. )

[42.5] Henry Bell was the overseer at Pewmonds End plantation in the 1732 inventory of Carter's estate. (Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ." )

[43] Richard Chichester (1657-1734) came to Virginia in 1702. He married Anne Fox Chinn, and settled in Lancaster County. ( "Virginia Gleanings in England," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography , 21(1913): 249-253. )

[44] Burwell's Quarter probably had belonged to Carter 's son-in-law, Nathaniel Burwell, who had died in 1721. The profits from this farm went to his widow, Elizabeth Burwell, and Carter acquired title to it at some point because he bequeathed it to one of Elizabeth's sons.

[45] Mary R. Miller states that there is a Cabin Point in "Westmoreland Co. in Mochodoc Neck on Lower Machodoc Creek . . . named for the Indian cabins fround there by John Mottrom in 1650." (Miller. Place-Names . . . . p.20 . )

[46] Ann Vitty's name was found in the Jones, Orders Book Entries . . . Referring to "Robert Carter." , p. 92. .

[47] Joseph Stretton commanded the Prince Eugene from Bristol. He had been accused in August 1721 of having traded with pirates in Madagascar, and was tried in England and was found innocent. Money that had been withheld from him in Virginia he recovered by petitioning the Council. (McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . 3(1721-1739): 550. )

[48] Pirogue is the West Indian term for a dugout canoe.

[48.5] Carter may be referring to a mill that he usually called the small or little mill; it was located in in the "northwest corner" of his Poplar Neck Quarter in Lancaster County near the head of Dymer Creek about a mile south of present-day Kilmarnock on Route 3. He had acquired the property from Reverend Andrew Jackson and others in 1695. (Sorrells. title>Landholders & Landholdings. pp. 11, 15, 20, 23. )

[49] Henry Shelton was one of Carter 's overseers, and apparently they settled on terms for his employment for the coming year.

[50] Richland was a farm in King George County; at various times Roger Oxford, Tim Stamps, and John Cole were the overseers. In the 1732 inventory, it had 13 slaves, 1 horse, 70 hogs, and 55 cattle. ("Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ." )

[51] Halls was a farm near the falls of the Rappahannock.

[52] Park Quarter was a farm in Stafford County which, in the 1732 inventory, had 24 slaves, 4 horses, 38 hogs, and 54 cattle. It was bequeathed to George Carter, and came to Landon Carter in 1741 after George's death. ("Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ." ; and Greene, The Diary of Colonel Landon Carter . . . , 5. )

[53] Hinson's Quarter was a farm in Stafford County; in 1732, it had 16 slaves, 33 hogs, and 47 cattle.

[54] Mangorite (or Mangorike) was a farm in Richmond County "in the vicinity of present Downing Bridge spanning the Rappahannock and present-day Little Carter Creek. . . . It consisted of 1,800 acres belonging to Colonel Moore Fauntleroy in the seventeenth century." It was bequeathed to Landon Carter. (Miller. Place-Names. . . . , 93, and Greene, The Diary of Colonel Landon Carter . . . , 5. )

[55] William Byrd II (1674-1744) of "Westover," Charles City County, was educated in England and at the Middle Temple. He was a burgess, Council member, Receiver General, and three times the agent for the colony in England. (See the sketch of him in Tinling. The Correspondence of the Three William Byrds. . . . pp. 195-202. )

This text revised February and March 2004 to add footnotes and amplify the modern text; it was posted April 21, 2004. Further revisions of this text were completed December 8, 2009.