Robert King Carter's Correspondence and Diary

   A Collection Transcribed
        and Digitized
   by Edmund Berkeley, Jr.

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Electronic Text Center , University of Virginia Library


Robert Carter Diary, 1722

     Robert Carter records the work being done on his plantations, the prevailing winds and a hurricane, visitors he received including members of his family, trips to Williamsburg and the sums he spent while there, arrival of ships with goods from Britain, movement of tobacco from outlying farms on his sloops and its placement on ships bound for Britain, and details of his bouts with gout.

Robert Carter Diary, 1722

-folio 2 recto -

["Corotoman," Rappahannock River, Lancaster County, Virginia]

      [May] 1722

17 [. . .] Staggs ball I gave him 5 pistols
18 was the Concert I gave the Singer 15 S & had given
her a Guinea before
19 I went to Merch[an] ts hundred found every[thing] in good Ordr.
20 & 21 was at my Daughter Burwels & Pages
22 went to Town left my Daughter Ann Ill of a Feavor.
23 the 300£ to Collo. Byrd had the Concurrence
of the Council
24 & 25 spent in reading Bills & other Assembly business
26 I was appointed of the Commitee to join some of the
Burg[esses] to pre[par] e a[n] Address to the Govr that he would
[be] present at the Treatie with the 5 Nations [. . .]
The same day I came over Yor[k River I gave]
Holloways Coachman 2 English Shilling
27 came home gave Collo[Mann] Pages Coachman
2 English Shill came
from Collo Pages
to Machins on their horses gave 2 Eng [shillings]
to Oliver
found Lettrs from the falls & Nomini
brot me [news] of the death of 3 Negros
I came home in Graves boat.
28 my Sloop goes for Wiccocomoco 29 I drew the Paper abt the Merchts [ . . . ]
I writ 6 Lettrs for Engd to go by the T[ . . . ]
man none to Perry nor my Sonn
-- --
30 I go for York a Season this day yesterday I was
at the hills Chaglins & Wolf house [Buc]
kles we have finishd & shall do at these
home Plantation or Planting abundance
of Plants at every place --

[Carter did not make entries for the next ten days.]

June 9th I bot of mr Austin More 25 new Negros 5 women 15 men
5 Girls I am to pay 20£ per head for the men
women 10£ per head for the Girls 4 [?] of the Girls I
gave to 4 of my grandChildren Iris to [Carter ?]
Lettice to Judith Burwell , Sarah [to]
Mann Page Phillis to Eliz Page under c[er]
tain conditions in case of the Gchild dea[th]
[finished ?] my Lettrs [ . . . ]

-folio 2 verso -

June 13 1722

I gave away the following sums
To the Govrs servts a pistol -- 1: 1.10
To my daughter Page Nurse 1: 1: 9
B[urwell] s Coachman -- 10: 0
To Wm Martin -- -- 5: --
I changd 1/2 a Pistol wth Bocock
I gave to Stags People 10" --
To the Servts at the Ordinarys 2" 6
To Oliver at Coll Berkleys 2" 6
To mr Holloways Coachman " --

-- --
Coll Jennings promisd me 660£ Coll Page
&c bills for the Propr[ietors] [hereafter]
75£ my own Interest by bills from sd Perso[n] s
[ . . . ] ne Int of my money & to pay me
[ . . . ] my Quitrents hereafter
Coll Ludwel Coll Page Coll Corbin have pd
me their Quitrents for 1721
-- --
[I l] ent mrs Seaton 4 Pistols all this Gold
[c] ame out of the Gold I had of Doctor Blair
[14] My Sloop came home brot 65 hds
15 I got home found a Lettr from King
with extraordinary News.
I had 4 Guineys of mr Jno Grymes
-- --
16 Captn Graves Captn Bradby came here
23 th Captn Bradby sent my Sloop home Thursday
26 abt [2 ?] Clock my sloop Set out for the falls
Carried 8 Negros 6 men 2 wom
[T] he other sloop went for Petomak the
26 Captn Russel came here informs
me the So Branch of the little fork
above Normans ford is the biggest
Branch & that many Surveys are
made there by the Kings Surveyor
Russel bring me a
Lettr from mr Hagar
the German Ministr dated 23 June 1722
July 15 I gave a Noat to Jno Rhodes for fifty busls Corn
mr Wormeley had ten barrels of Corn from the [ . . . ]

-folio 3 recto -

July 20 1722
I lett Dan Dunaway have a barl of Corn from
the Hills on mr Wormleys Noat
July 28 the Carter & Uverilla began their Voiage
29 they turnd down the river 30th went out of the river
30th Bradby in sight
I pd Bradby 25 English Shill for a Covering for
my sloop
I pd Capt Graves 7/6 for his Buckles & 18 for
the Ball[an] ce of his Accot
30 B Harrison from Tuesday last he offerd
me the sight of his Mothers &c on Saturday
I refusd to receive them then on monday I
read sent them back for Ackt &c
Augst 1 Zuil Saild gave me a Bottle Snuff.
2 I go to Collo Balls to meet Stagg
I sent to mr Wormeley a gro Cydr in my own boat when
Stagg was here before by Captn Graves longb[oa] t
I sent him 3 gro more of Bottles.
Girl Sarah died of a strange distempr at Hills
Jo Gregory from the falls came home Petomk
26th July brot 30 hds Tobo from Captn Hoopr
six hds from Washinton Parish 3 from
Meeks 15 from Turbervile 2 from Knight
his Rent 2 out of North[umberlan] d in all 58 hds .
Josh Odar came from the falls of or river into the
Creek wednesday the 25 July brot 26 hds from
Normans ford & Mountain 5 from Major
Denwiddy 4 hds from Major Smith 2 hds
from Coll Tarpley I prizd the 2 Crops into
16 hds had the[m] in the Averilla in 2 days
fryday Night they went of .
for the Petomak Trip I had 3 men from
Bradby 1 man from the Carter I gave each of
them 4 Gall brandy
To the Carpenter of the Carter 5 1/2 gallo --
To Graves 5 barrls Corn 3 Shoats 1 more for
my boys Schoolmaster some bacon Cordial watr
to Bradby 3 barrels Corn 2 hogs & in othr
respects much the same as to Graves Brad
by gave me six qts Port six Pts Canary

-folio 3 verso -

Augst 2d 1722
Puts Into the Cellar 10 doz & 2 bottles Weymouth
Beer peices & all
-- --
This day a great Discovery made of Catherines
6. Charles the Coachman goes to Mill for Indian [corn]
Tho Carter had a Noat from me the Miller to
grind his Corn for him & let him not come away
-- --
Wm Sydr goes to fetching Stakes over the Creek
-- --
I sent mrs Chichestr 2 bottles Madera wine.
-- --
10th my Sloop went to the falls carried Doctor Bells
things with him carried Husts things
11th after Night mr Harrisons man came here being
Saturday Night Monday I had Compa[ny] all day
Tuesday morning I dispatchd him sent two Lettrs
by him one to mrs Harrison one to her Sonn
I would not meddle with her great Paquet
her man kept It all the While he was here
& carried it back again to her
15 I & my Children went to mr. Steptoes' my home
Orchard was then Inclosed we began to make
Cydr made 3 Coolers and a half, my Mill Gudg
eon was broke & brot home I was at the mill
Wm Morris Cut the Shaft
16 the Smith Made the Mill Gudgeon & hoop
I was at Captn Smith came home at midnight
we made two Buts of Cydr & fild up the 1st
Cask I recd at mr Steptoes Captn [Daniel] McCartys Lettr
with seven Shillings in it his Nort[humberlan] d Rent
I left wth mr Steptoe six Tobo knives for Tho. West .
17th made three great Butts of Cydr
18 made 3 great Buts of Cydr gave Price a Note
for 3 bushells of Meal was at all my home Qrs
20 I answd Captn McCartys Lettr sent him
2 Warrts made 3 great Butts Cydr ordd toby [ . . . ]
Pursel Corn at Tho Wests
21 last Night I was very uneasie took a doz
of Crem or tartar It workt very well
we make 3 Butts Cydr this day
22 was clear of the Pain & Opression at my Stomach
wch troubled me before I took the Physick slept all
the night thro
Geo had a Feavor last Night took bark this morng
Amy Cosby h[ad] a Fitt

-folio 4 recto -

August 22th 1722
made 3 Butts Cydr Stag & mr Balls
Family here rainey & Windy in the Evening
I was at Jacksons Coopers & the brick house
Ordered Jackson 1 1/2 Corn at Coopers per week
Will Waugh from the same place 3 Bushels
per week.
23th wind at SE blows fresh cloudy made
3 Butts Sydr
24 much the same weather mr Stagg could not
gett away W[ind] SE blows fresh we mix all
sorts of Apples
25 calm hot funky cloudy weather W[ind] E we made
21 Coolers of Cydr Layd down the Gutter Leads
on the E[ast] end of front
of the building & Shmgd [sic ]
26 Sunday W[ind] NE very cloudy & hot raind
in the afternoon Thunderd much
27 a fair morning W[ind] at W, very hott wee
made 21 Coolers of Cydr
28 a fair morning W[ind] Westerly mighty
dews both tooday & yesterday
My Sloop came from the falls wee made
21 Coolers of Cydr this day MadGas[ca] r Jack brot home
This Evening Sawney came here in the sloop Coll Page
sent me my Lettrs came into York on Satur
day last the 25th Instant
29th I writ to Coll [Mann] Page & my daughter Burwel
made 5 1/2 Cools of Cydr & Conclude that work
for the Present begun getting of keeping
Apples yesterday
30th Pickt Apples to keep Got my Walnuts
31 got Walnuts Beat my Apples of the Trees
1 Septemr Got walnuts beat Apples of the
Trees Sawyers Beat Apples at the Trough
Odar went away to the falls in the Night the
30th of Augst Charles Catcht up 2 young hor
ses one my own the other mrs [Mary] Swans
mr Harrison came here 1st Septemr brings a L[ette] r
from his mothers Deed
Sepr 2 Wm Martin & Rich Harison brings me
rects from the two Carters for 800 460,771
amounting to 1971 lbs Tob on Accot of sd Harrison debt

-folio 4 verso -

Septr 3d 1722
I gave a Noat to Jnosons Overseer for 2 barls Corn
at the hills & 1 1/2 Bushels Salt he had here
we boiled 5 Coppers Cydr after twas dark W[ind] flew
abot from SW to NW Changd the Air
4th a cool morning the Taylor had of me 12 ells
of Ozna[burg] for 4 larg Shirts 3 yards of W[hi] t[e] do
for lining Cha[rles's] Jacket & Breeches I prepar
for Midd[lese] x. wee boil Cydr again 5 Coppers
met wth 7 protest pd by mr Perry To Sytwel 70
od Pounds an Accot Sales my remaining
4 hds per Wharton 3 Lettrs from Perry one
from Coll Byrd Jno Seagr promist to give
me Security for his debt next Court I came
home in the Night W[ind] fresh at NW
5 a cool morning, we boiled 7 Coppers of Cdr.
6 a Cool morning & cloudy Charles fallin
paid me some quitrent money Ster£2"13"6
6 mrs B[enjamin] H[arrison] went away wee boild 5 Coppers Sydr
I sent mr Machin an Oz bark 2 bottles wine
Amie Cosby went away without saying
any thing I had some words with her
7 My Sawyers were abt sawing some
white oak Plank I gave them a new line
W Sydnr came home after I went to
bed last Night had bin since weden
day morning 4th of the month
Robin & Manl helps the Gardinrs
Wee finish putting by boiled Cydr
Jo Gregory had Six pd Bacon
8 Amy Cosby came again last Night pretends
she only went to See her Coz Gilbert af
ter his marriage Robin and Manuel
still with the Gardiner.
10th Amy Cosby went over the river wth my
Coachman the Plummer finisht his
work on Saturday the 8th of the month
11th I pd the Plummr in Gold 8"13S out of the
gold I had of Ja Carter & a pistol of the same
weighing 20S wth 2d overpd him
12th I was at or Court Obtaind an Order for cutting
of Madagascar Jacks Toes Captn Eskridge
[The last line at the bottom of page is illegible.]

-folio 5 recto -

Sepr 13 1722
Captn Eskridg staid here a day I gave
him a Commission to be Deputy Esch[eater]
I sent a Demand by him of my Rent
to sevl [sic] Persons I sent Meeks a Copy of
the Tobo Law I delivd [sic] him Eskridge 4 Protests
as by his Rect in the Evening my
Daughter & Children came home.
14 Captn Eskridg went away 12 of Clock
Docto [r] Mann Cutt [sic] of mad[agasca] r fellows Toes.
mr Wormeley came here.
18 I go to York I carry 1 gui[nea] 2 1/2 d[itt] o 12/6 Cash
went that night to Collo Page in mr Wormeleys
Chariot & six next day dind with Coll Page
19 went to mrs Burwell lay at mrs Burwells past
our bills to mr Wormeley for 300£ on mr Perry
to Interest according the Will of N[athaniel] B[urwell]
20 in the morning went to tobo house gave Ordrs
to throw away all mannr Trash to lay Strait
without tying up. went to the race won a gui[nea]
of Captn Jones.
21 came to mr Wormeleys & so home Amie Cosby
came home brot things from mrs Burwell for
my daughter Ann
22 Calm & hott Coll Page taken wth the Gout while I was th[e] r[e]
Recd Papers of Coll Lewis abt the Escheators Office
prizd out my Grapes had 3 large Tubs of pickt grap[es]
I brot from mrs Burwels 4 lb of Coffee beside Canistr
I made 103 gall of wine
24. I scour the remaindr of Virg[ini] a Cloth being 2
peices 500 Yards Scourd in my absences
25 My People Cleans my Wheat Coachman
goes away wth RB Shoos is to bring home
my hd of Shoos Biscoe prepares Cloths for
the falls & Peumds End I drew of my Ma
dera Wine fill 23 doz Bottles & 8 more
Nassau goes to Captn Carters for my Trunk of plate
I writ 2 Le[tte] res to Dawkins & Pemberton --
Saturday last W Sydnor gave me Accot of 673
foot of 1 1/2 Inch white Oak Plan[k . . . ] n Saw'd
26 Coll Jennings Summons dated the [ . . . ] came to me this
morning at 8 Clock the Govr Coll [Drys] dale arrivd at
Kequotan the 22 got Wmsburg [25th?] orderd the Council
the 27th. The Commissary [wrote] to me likewise [to let?]
me kn[ow . . . ] my Sons Commission for the Secr[etary's office]

-folio 5 verso -

Sepr 28th 1722 abt 11 Clock Went away with my Lettrs to
Coll Page & mr Commissary Wm Sydnor
mr Rt Tucker sent me a Lettr from Captn Hyde
16th July. lays aside the 1/2 per Cent & Freight
29 4 doz & two bottles Rack now in the house
Octor 1 Wm Sydr returnd Yesterday morn before day
brot three Lettrs from my Son 2 from the Comm[issar] y
& Coll Page my Sons Commission publisht the
27th. when the Govrs was
2d I sent the Lycens to Majo[r] Fleet
4 doz & 4 bottles White wine in my Cellar.
a great deal Haut bryon
a great deal of old Southham
-- --
3 Came mr Grimes , mr Armistead Coll Page
My daughtr Ann married to mr Ben
by mr Bell Our Ministr
6 Southern Compa[ny] went away
7th Stagg & the Musick went away
I gave to Langford 5 Guineas to mr Stags [sic]
man 2 Guineas
Captn Smith his wife mr Steptoe his wife
Captn Pinkard mr Edwds was here Captn
Jones & his wife mr Eustace & his wife
I Invited but they did not come.
8th Newgent & Burk came here I began
to Cloath my people
I gave to my daughter Harrison 6 Guineas
& 3 moidrs recd of my Daughter besides
2 doubloons 1 moyder 1 fre[nch] Guiney 3 fre[nch] Pist
2 fre[nch] peices more 1 Span[ish] Pistol 2 Arabians
1 Jacobus 1 1/2 ditt[o] 1 bro[ken] peice more a Twist of
Gold. 12 rings in a box sevl sorts 1 ditto I gave
to my Daughter, 1 I put on another mourning
ring I put on
10th I put a mixture of fre[nch] brandy & the bottom of a Sugr Cask
6 qts brand[y] of the Sugr abt 3 qts into my biggest cask of
my no[ . . . ] it being a hd into my 25 gall Cask I put
1 qts fre[nch] brandy . . . ] Sugr
I [go to T] own wth me 8.2.6 from mr Carter
[ . . . ] 61 guineas in my Pocket
[ . . . ] Harrison 5£ Cash

-folio 6 recto -

Octor 13 1722
I went to mrs Burwels mr Harrison & my Daug
hter with me dind At Collo Page on Sunday lay at
mrs Burwells that night got into Town betimes
on monday 15 waited upon the govr went to the Coun[cil]
with him
19 fryday Court Sat in the morning adjournd me[t]
Collo Spotswood out of Town Govr & Council & a
great many Gent some in Coaches some on
horses Coll Jennings & I dind with the Govrs.
I paid 3"15S to mr Chiswell a debt from Major
Burwells Estate wch is owing to me
I gave away at Coll Pages 10S to mr Holloway
Coachmen 10S to mr Burwells Coachman 7.6
to mr Berkleys People 7/6 for bringing my
things from Seatons ferry to the Govrs People
26/6 to the Ordinarys tenders 5S to mr Stags
People 10S
Novr 6 at Night I got home found all well only
Phil & John Harvy
mr Turbervile had 2 bushels of my new whe[a] t
7 Rachel went to my Daughter Burwells
I sent my Lettrs to go by Cobb to the burnt house
8 Young was fitted with Cloths &c for his Gang
carried to Rd Meeks 4 new New Negros
two men two women also Madagascar Jack
2 Negros dead at Nomini Billy at Marshl
Doll at Meeks I writ to Captns Turbervile
Eskridg . By John Sage I writ Jnoson --
9th. Hen Bell came here
13 mr Chichestr had an Abridmt of the Virga Laws
for wch he is to pay 5S Ster
15 gave a Noat to Ruth Wood on W Waugh
for five Yards of Virga Cloth on Accot of
4 doz Chickens at 2/6 is 12/6 she
ows me 6[more]
17 Cha Jones had 5 1/4 1/2 Virga Tole Cloth
mr Turbervile had a gall 1 pt fre[nch] brandy
Coachman had a pair plains & bed Cord
Peter brot the things & the People for
mr Burwells Quarter carries a doz long
irish stockings a Cask Vinegar
19 mr Eustace was with me for 1/2 an Acre of land
to build a Mill on agst his Cabin neck point
I told him no Answere would give him
I was not Accustomd either to give or seling
land. & much other discourse past abt this

-folio 6 verso -

Novr 20th 1722
Delivd to mr Edwd Seagr Protest for
21 My Sloop sent out for the falls carrys 3 Negros
to mr Burwels Quarter &ca
Nassau this Night told me he had Carted to
the Landing 26 Load[s] of wood.
6 1/2 lb white Sugr to Amy Cosby
2 pt bottles Canary to mr Burgess.
This morning Bisco told me a sad Storey of
Pris & B, I then first heard A[nn] V[itty] was wth Child
I left a Protest wth Coll Page for 33£ od money
Capt Eskridg had sevl Protest[s] of me at Town
Captn Carter had sevl of me before I went to Town
Captn Cobb saild 19th Novr smal wind but fair
22 I begin to fetch wood home in my flatt [boat] the Gar[diner]
& others my boats Gang.
This day drew 8 bottles brand[y] Amy had 2
bottles Bisco one 5 put into my Closett.
Yesterday mr Grimes sent me 2d & 3d bills for
my Sons Solicitors Salary
26, Billy was whipt & branded
27 Robt Singleton pd me 36S Sterling for
Qt Rents of six hundd Acres Land he hold[s]
in Stafford due 29 Sepr last
Decr 1 Captn Stretton arrived 3d I got my Goods
I bot a pirAugo 10S Cash 25S Goods.
3d measured at the Hills 82 1/2 Corn hds
In Novemr abt 25 at Changlin 64 hds Corn
-- --
4 begun digging brick at the Church Earth
last night Danl Carter brot home the
List of my Negro Children & their Ages
Taken by him & Wm Waugh
5 Charles goes to Mill.
Yesterday brot Corn from Indian Town
four hds went to mr Bells mr Harrison
my Daughter Ann with me.
I began Jacksons Mill 21 th Novemr.
5 I had Geo Money yesterday 1/2 Guinea 5S
I agreed with Hen Shelton
I let Wm Hutchins have 10S paid his & Med
disons ferriages over Peanketank
17 my Sloop came from the falls brot 4 beeves 8hds
Corn 10 hds Wheat 3 Tubs 3 Pails Butter 96 lbs Tallo
Belladin fetcht 6 hds Corn Tobo James Carter
was here mr Booth was here.

-folio 7 recto -

Decr 1722
18 Cha went to mill for 6 Bushels English
6 bushels indian [corn] I brewd 3 Cask[s] Sydr wth
brandy & Sugr
I began the frame for my Stable at the Church
16th of this month
A perticular Accot of things brot from the falls in
my Sloop 17th Decemr

beeves Wheat Buttr       tallow
Richl[an] d 1 -- 46 bushls 2 Tubs 1 buckt 1 pigin       21 3/4 lb
Halls 2 -- 26 -- --       50 1/2
Park -- 55 -- 2 buckets -- --        --
Poplar 1 beef 70 ditto 1 Tubb -- --       24
              -- -- --              
              197 bushls              
Hinsons        wheat came befr 1 Bucket --
Peumds Inn 4 hds Indian Corn v              
Mangorite 4 ditto                     

19 mr Meeks came here
-- -- --
                     lbs Qrs Oz
26 gave out some Sugr wt Canistr 1 -- 3 -- 1
              Weights 6 -- 0 -- 0
Brown Sugr        Stone -- 5 -- 3 -- 0
              wt agst --        2 -- 2
              whole wt 11 -- 1 --       
              Net Sr 9 -- 3 -- 1

Tho Austins Accot of brandy
last May 3 3 Cask     140
                                      5 in a Carboy
                                  335 gall


Source copy consulted: Robert Carter Diary, 1722-1727, Robert Carter Papers, Acc. No. 3807, Albert H. Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia. Charlottesville. The first of the folios of the diary is a fragment of such small size that transcription of it seems pointless. Mentioned on the verso of it are: Joseph Gregory, Mr. Edwards, Col. Tarpley, and Wm. Stanardson, and a trip to York.

[1] This may refer to Charles Stagg (d. c. 1735), the manager of the first theatre in Williamsburg, and a dancing master.

[2] A pistole was a Spanish gold coin in use in Carter's time.

[3] This number not used.

[4] Williamsburg

[5] Anne Carter (1702-c. 1743) was to marry in 1722 Benjamin Harrison IV of "Berkeley," Charles City County.

[6] Carter refers to the decision of the Assembly to send an "embassy to negotiate with the Five Nations [of Indians] at Albany," and that Governor Spotswood lead the delegation. (Dodson. Alexander Spotswood, 267-268. )

[7] A ferry across the Rappahannock from Lancaster County was located at this Middlesex County property, probably owned by Thomas Machen who appears in the records of Christ Church Parish, Middlesex, in 1725. It was a short distance from Machens across the county to another ferry located at Seatons in Gloucester County on the south bank of the Piankatank River. Carter regularly took this route to Williamsburg. ( Churchill Gibson Chamberlayne, editor. The Vestry Book of Christ Church Parish Middlesex County, Virginia 1663-1767. [Richmond: Old Dominion Press, 1927] p. 202. )

[7.1] Benjamin Graves was the son of Captain Thomas Graves (d. ante 1720), long a captain of vessels trading to Virginia, and a special friend of Carter. Benjamin also commanded vessels in the trade, especially the Carter. ( Adm. 68/194-196, ff. 33r, found in the microfilms of the Virginia Colonial Records Project, Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia. )

[8] "Buckles," or "Corotoman," was a property very close to Carter 's home, also called "Corotoman." But this property was under the direction of an overseer named John Buckles, and Carter frequently refers to it as "Buckles."

[9] Augustine Moore (c. 1685-c.1734) of "Chelsea," King William County, a justice and prominent leader. ( J.H.P., "The Gorsuch and Lovelace Families," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. 25(1917): 431-444. )

[10] Carter Burwell (1716-1756) was Robert Carter's grandson by his daughter Elizabeth (Carter) Burwell and her first husband, Nathaniel Burwell (1680-1721). Carter Burwell would live at "Carter's Grove," and would marry Lucy Grymes in 1738. (Carleton. A Genealogy. . . of Robert Carter. . . . p. 128. )

[10.1] Judith Burwell (b & d 1722) was Carter's short-lived grandaughter by his daughter, Elizabeth, and her first husband, Nathaniel Burwell; she was their sixth child. (Carleton. A Genealogy. . . of Robert Carter. . . . p. 143. )

[10.2] Mann Page (1718-1778) was Robert Carter's grandson by his daughter Judith (Carter) Page and her husband Mann Page (1691-1730). He would inherit "Rosewell," Gloucester County, from his father, and marry first Alice Grymes (1724-1746) in 1743, and in 1748, Ann Corbin Tayloe. (Carleton. A Genealogy. . . of Robert Carter. . . . p. 212. )

[10.21] Little evidence of Elizabeth Page's apparently short life can be found today. Carter noted on June 13, 1722, that he had paid (while away from home) "To my daughter Page Nurse 1: 1: 9." This was very likely a "wet nurse" for the newborn granddaughter.

[10.3] Alexander Spotswood (1646-1740) had been the lieutenant governor from 1710 and would be succeeded in September 1722 by Hugh S\Drysdale. He would remain in the colony after his term.

[10.4] This was Charles Stagg (d. c. 1735), the manager of the first theatre in Williamsburg, and a dancing master. He and his wife Mary had come to Virginia about 1715 and were indentured to merchant William Levingston to teach dancing. Levingston entered a contract with them the next year that they would attempt to obtain a license for "the sole provilege of Acting Comedies, Drolls or other kind of Stage Plays within any part of the sd colony not only for the three years next ensueing the date hereof but for as much longer time." ( "Williamsburg" in The Concise Oxford Companion to the Theatre online at http://www. 11/5/2009. The contact cited on the website was found in York County Records, Orders, Wills, etc,. Book XV, 53. )

[10.5] Quit rent was the term used for the payment due from the holder of land to the "lord of the manor," in this case, to the proprietors of the Northern Neck. Carter as the proprietor's agent, collected these payments. No services were required of the landholder as had been true in mediaeval times.

[11] There was a ferry over the Piankatank River near Berkeley Island operated by Bailey Seaton that Carter often refers to when describing trips to Williamsburg. The Seaton property is noted on the Fry-Jefferson map as on the Piankatank in Gloucester County.

[12] Captain James Bradby commanded the Micajah and Philip . ( P.R.O., Adm. 68/195, ff. 74v, found in the microfilms of the Virginia Colonial Records Project, Albert H. Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia. )

[13] William Russell (1680?-1741) was a well-known ranger and explorer who eventually settled in Prince William County (later Fauquier). Fairfax Harrison thinks he may have been one of the rangers who accompanied Spotswood's Knights of the Golden Horseshoe. (Harrison, Landmarks . . . , 204. )

[14] The Fry-Jefferson map shows the Little Fork as a tributary of the Hedgman (now the Rappahannock) River. It lies in what is probably Culpeper County today, not far from the Blue Ridge.

[15] Henry Hager (c. 1644-1738) was a "pastor of their own Evangelical Reformed Faith" who came to Virginia with the Siegenian German miners in the spring of 1714, and moved with them to Germanna, and later to Germantown. ( "Germantown," in F. Harrison, "Landmarks..." , 207-221 )

[16] Governor Alexander Spotswood had encouraged immigration of Germans into Virginia in 1714, and they settled "in what was then Stafford Co. . . .. later Prince William and now Fauquier." The men worked in Spotswood's iron mines, but around 1718 took grants in the proprietary in what was then Stafford County. (See "Germantown" in Harrison. Landmarks. . . . pp. 207-221. and Elizabeth Chapman Denny Vann and Margaret Collins Denny Dixon. Virginia's First German Colony. Richmond: Privately printed, 1961. p. 33.)

[16.5] John Wormeley (1689-1727), a younger son of Ralph Wormeley (d. 1701) for whom Carter had been a trustee in John's youth. When his older brother, Ralph, died in 1714, John inherited all of their father's considerable estate in Middlesex and York counties. He married Elizabeth Tayloe and had six children. (See "Letters Concerning The Estate Of Ralph Wormeley" in the opening page of this web site ; and Edmund Jennings Lee, Lee of Virginia 1642-1892. [Heritage Books, 2008 reprint found on Google Books, 9/10/2009], 147. )

[17] Benjamin Harrison IV (1695-1745), builder of "Berkeley," Charles City County, a prominent citizen and frequently a burgess, married Carter 's daughter a few months later. ( "Harrison of James River," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. 32(1924): 97 )

[17.5] John Zuil was a merchant and was probably the ship's captain that Carter mentioned in his diary 1722 August 1, "Zuil Saild Gave me a Bottle Snuff." Carter recorded a diary note about him the following year as well: 1723 December 30 "mr Zuil & man came back" [from church]. In what British city Zuil lived is not clear, but it may have been Liverpool because city directories of 1767-1773 list a John Zuil as a merchant, first in Cable Street, and later, in King Street. This probably would have been a son of the man Carter knew, given the shorter lives at this period. ( "Yuil Family Newsletters," Issue #24 Fall. 1998 at, 11/6/2009. )

[18] William Ball (1686-1745) of "Millenbeck," Lancaster County, not far from "Corotoman," was a close friend of Carter 's, a justice, burgess, and wealthy and powerful man. ( Nina Tracy Mann, "William Ball of Millenbeck," "Northern Neck of Virginia Historical Magazine," 25(Dec. 1975):2773-2779. )

[19] Thomas Hooper was appointed sheriff of Stafford County in 1719. (McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . , 4[1721-1739]:xl. )

[20] Washington Parish was one of two in Westmoreland County.

[21] This note eliminated.

[22] John Tarpley (1661-ca. 1739) was sheriff and a justice of the peace in Richmond County ( "Captain John Tarpley I Family," at, 11/11/2009 )

[23] Several of Carter's sons were at school in England at this time.

[24] This probably was Catherine Garrett who acknowledged an indenture to Carter for two years' service on August 8, 1722, in Lancaster County Court. (Jones, Orders Book Entries . . . Referring to "Robert Carter." p. 56. )

[24.5] This mill, sometimes referred to by Carter as the small or little mill, was located in Lancaster County and may have been the one "on the head of the Eastern branch of Corotoman" purchased by Carter's brother from Thomas and Elizabeth Haynes January 4, 1670. The property included about forty acres. (Jones, John Carter II. . . . p. 73. )

[25] Dr. John Bell was the minister of Christ Church Parish, Lancaster County.

[26] Elizabeth (Burwell) Harrison (d. 1734), wife of Benjamin Harrison III of Charles City County.

[27] Captain John Steptoe lived on land that later (about 1778) would be known as Kilmarnock in Lancaster County. ( B. Brainard Edmonds, "Kilmarnock." [Kilmarnock, Va.: Little Pebble Press, 1976] 6. )

[27.4] It is not clear what Carter meant by "cooler" but it must have been some sort of storage vessel in which the cider could have been kept. Neither the internet nor the Oxford English Dictionary provided a definition.

[27.5] According to the Oxford English Dictionary in machinery, as a mill, the gudgeon is "the part of a shaft or axle which rests on the bearings."

[27.6] A butt was "A cask for wine or ale, of capacity varying from 108 to 140 gallons." ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[28] Thomas West was the overseer at Blough Point Quarter in Northumberland County when Carter 's inventory was prepared in 1732. ("Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ." )

[28.5] Tobias Purcell purchased 150 acres in Lancaster County on the Corotoman River from Martha Norris on February 5, 1689, and Robert Carter bought the tract from him in 1696. The land would be a portion of that guaranteed to Betty (Landon) Carter in the jointure agreement signed before her marriage to Robert Carter in 1701.( Gertrude Entz Gray. Virginia Northern Neck Land Grants, Volume 1, 1694 -- 1742. [Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1987] p. 87. Google Books, 8/11/2011; )

[28.6] "Bitartrate of potash (acid potassium tartrate), present in grape juice, deposited in a crude form in the process of fermentation, and adhering to the sides of wine-casks in the form of a hard crust, also called argal or argol, which in the crude state varies from pale pink to dark red, but when purified forms white crystals, which are cream of tartar . . . emetic tartar, common name in pharmacy of potassio-antimonious tartrate . . . a poisonous substance, used in medicine to excite vomiting. ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[28.7] The bark of various species of the Cinchona tree, from which quinine is procured, formerly ground into powder and taken as a febrifuge [fever reducing agent]. ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[29] Amy Cosby seems to have been an important house servant, probably the housekeeper for Carter , then a widower, and is mentioned a number of times in the diary.

[30] Carter refers here to two of his farms by the names of their respective overseers.

[31] Brick House Quarter was located in Lancaster County and was a "collection of parcels acquired before 1732 from various owners"; in the 1732 inventory, there were 20 slaves, 63 sheep, 45 hogs, and 46 cattle on the place. (Sorrells. title>Landholders & Landholdings. p. 23; and "Carter Papers: An Inventory.. . ." )

[32] Madagascar Jack was a slave who "hath for some time past Lain & hid and lurked in swamps and Woods & other obscure places both here and in Maryland killing hogs and Committing other Injurys to his Majestys good Subjects." Carter obtained permission from the Lancaster County Court on September 12, 1722, "to Cut off all his toes on one of the sd negroes feet in order to the reclaiming him & Terrifying others from the like practice." (Jones, Orders Book Entries . . . Referring to "Robert Carter." p.59. )

[33] Mrs. Swan was Carter 's sister-in-law; she died in 1722.

[34] Osnaburg is a coarse fabric named for the region of Germany in which it was first produced. It was commonly used for sacking and bagging.

[34.5] Wharton was Captain John Wharton of the 80 ton Loyal Margaret. ( Survey Report 6800 abstracting Adm. 68/194, found in the microfilms of the Virginia Colonial Records Project, Shirley and Albert Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia. )

[35] Carter had been among the trustees for the young sons, Ralph (ca. 1681-1714) and John (1689-1727), of Ralph Wormeley after their father's death.

[36] At this time, a chariot was a light, four-wheeled open carriage.

[37] John Lewis (1669-1725) of "Warner Hall," Gloucester County, had been a member of the Council since 1704. ( Louis B. Wright and Marion Tinling, William Byrd of Virginia: The London Diary 1717-1721 and Other Writings. [New York: Oxford University Pres, 1958]. p. 458 )

[37.5] Canary is "a light sweet wine from the Canary Islands.". ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[38] Robert Biscoe (1699-1748) was born in London and educated at Christ's Hospital school. He became one one of Carter's clerks about 1716, writing letters and keeping accounts for the busines. He completed his indenture in 1724, prospered modestly as a merchant and farmer, married Elizabeth Lawson, and in 1743, wrote a book, The Mechant's Magazine; or Factor's Guide. (See the lengthy sketch of Biscoe in Brown and Sorrells. People in Profile. pp. 45-56.

[39] Kecoughtan was the old name for the area later known as Elizabeth City; it is where the city of Hampton lies today.

[39] Henry Fleet (d. 1735) was the third member of a distinguished Lancaster County family to bear this name, and was justice, sheriff in 1729-1730, coroner, surveyor of roads, and militia officer. ("Rebecca Banton Mysterious Woman of Wealth" in Brown and Sorrells. People in Profile, pp. 129-30. )

[39.2] According to the Oxford English Dictionary, haut brion is a type of fine claret.

[39.3] Southam was an ale.

[40] Alexander Spotswood was the former governor. (Raimo. Directory of American Colonial . . . Governors 1607-1789. )


[41] A moidore was a gold coin from Portugal or Brazil in use in Carter's time.

[41.5] A doubloon was a coin used in Spanish America in Carter's time worth 16 pieces of eight.

[41.6] "The current (but not official) name of an English gold coin, struck in the reign of James I. Originally issued in 1603, under the name of the Sovereign, and current for 20s[hillings]." ( Oxford English Dictionary )

[41.7] Carter had a clerk named John Harvey, and there are notes on some of his letters, "Harvey to copy." A John Harvey witnessed his will, and some of its codicils, which is logical if Harvey had written it out for Carter. However, on 1729 November 14, Carter wrote to Micajah Perry that Harvey, "whom you sent me from the Hospital," had completed his service, indicated that he did not trust Harvey, and intimated that Harvey may have stolen some accounts of the Burwell estate of which he requested copies from Perry.

[41.8] A Captain John Cobb commanded the Willis , a ship of 300 tons with 20 men, in 1727-28. The ship was owned by merchants Haswell and Brooks which may have been a London firm. ( Survey Report 6801 on Adm. 68/194-5, ff. 4r, Virginia Colonial Records Project, Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia. )

[42] Burnt House was a farm in Richmond County, "apparently in the vicinity of Cat Point Bridge. (Miller. Place-Names. . . . , 19. )

[42.5] Henry Bell was the overseer at Pewmonds End plantation in the 1732 inventory of Carter's estate. (Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ." )

[43] Richard Chichester (1657-1734) came to Virginia in 1702. He married Anne Fox Chinn, and settled in Lancaster County. ( "Virginia Gleanings in England," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography , 21(1913): 249-253. )

[44] Burwell's Quarter probably had belonged to Carter 's son-in-law, Nathaniel Burwell, who had died in 1721. The profits from this farm went to his widow, Elizabeth Burwell, and Carter acquired title to it at some point because he bequeathed it to one of Elizabeth's sons.

[45] Mary R. Miller states that there is a Cabin Point in "Westmoreland Co. in Mochodoc Neck on Lower Machodoc Creek . . . named for the Indian cabins fround there by John Mottrom in 1650." (Miller. Place-Names . . . . p.20 . )

[46] Ann Vitty's name was found in the Jones, Orders Book Entries . . . Referring to "Robert Carter." , p. 92. .

[47] Joseph Stretton commanded the Prince Eugene from Bristol. He had been accused in August 1721 of having traded with pirates in Madagascar, and was tried in England and was found innocent. Money that had been withheld from him in Virginia he recovered by petitioning the Council. (McIlwaine. Executive Journals of the Council. . . . 3(1721-1739): 550. )

[48] Pirogue is the West Indian term for a dugout canoe.

[48.5] Carter may be referring to a mill that he usually called the small or little mill; it was located in in the "northwest corner" of his Poplar Neck Quarter in Lancaster County near the head of Dymer Creek about a mile south of present-day Kilmarnock on Route 3. He had acquired the property from Reverend Andrew Jackson and others in 1695. (Sorrells. title>Landholders & Landholdings. pp. 11, 15, 20, 23. )

[49] Henry Shelton was one of Carter 's overseers, and apparently they settled on terms for his employment for the coming year.

[50] Richland was a farm in King George County; at various times Roger Oxford, Tim Stamps, and John Cole were the overseers. In the 1732 inventory, it had 13 slaves, 1 horse, 70 hogs, and 55 cattle. ("Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ." )

[51] Halls was a farm near the falls of the Rappahannock.

[52] Park Quarter was a farm in Stafford County which, in the 1732 inventory, had 24 slaves, 4 horses, 38 hogs, and 54 cattle. It was bequeathed to George Carter, and came to Landon Carter in 1741 after George's death. ("Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ." ; and Greene, The Diary of Colonel Landon Carter . . . , 5. )

[53] Hinson's Quarter was a farm in Stafford County; in 1732, it had 16 slaves, 33 hogs, and 47 cattle.

[54] Mangorite (or Mangorike) was a farm in Richmond County "in the vicinity of present Downing Bridge spanning the Rappahannock and present-day Little Carter Creek. . . . It consisted of 1,800 acres belonging to Colonel Moore Fauntleroy in the seventeenth century." It was bequeathed to Landon Carter. (Miller. Place-Names. . . . , 93, and Greene, The Diary of Colonel Landon Carter . . . , 5. )

[55] William Byrd II (1674-1744) of "Westover," Charles City County, was educated in England and at the Middle Temple. He was a burgess, Council member, Receiver General, and three times the agent for the colony in England. (See the sketch of him in Tinling. The Correspondence of the Three William Byrds. . . . pp. 195-202. )

This text revised February and March 2004 to add footnotes and amplify the modern text; it was posted April 21, 2004. Further revisions of this text were completed December 8, 2009.